By Mehmet Kurtkaya, Published on October 30, 2019 , updated October 31, 2019
The words "foot" and Turkish "ayak" sound completely different, but can they be related? The answer : Words for foot and leg in world languages
Etymology of daughter, milker, child, tribe, family, clan
Part I: It's not only the word for earth that connects world languages. Let's talk sweet : Honey and mead in world languages Part II: The words for bee, honeybee across Eurasia, Africa, America and Ocenia show deep and ancient connections. Part III: Bee Mythology and dual meaning of the word for bee and pure Of bees and humans: from Paleolithic to Antiquity.
This article must be considered together with The word earth in world languages shows deep ancient connections
Basque language and its relationship to other languages
Image by Gilles Guillamot
Basque language is valuable for analyzing the history of world languages, as well history itself. The difficulties to affiliate Basque with other languages actually give us an opportunity to delve into linguistic history of Eurasia and Africa. They offer in engineering terms something close to an independant variable (like eigenvectors in math used in system identification in control).
Now that the revolutionary technology of genetics is applied to ancient genomes recovered from ancient human remains, we are now "witnessing" ancient migrations previously unidentified by archaeology.
“Genetics has given archaeology a kick in the ass in recent years, so we have to reinterpret our entire recent history,” said Professor Kristian Kristiansen, an archaeologist. This sentiment was echoed after other genetics research results:
In 2018, a new study on the genetic history of the British Isles shocked archaeologists: From Daily Mail:
"Dr Tom Booth, an archaeologist from the Natural History Museum, said: 'This spectacular transformation of Britain, with such a large number of Beaker people coming here is the opposite of what experts have thought for the last 10 to 20 years. 'The textbooks need to be ripped up.'"
Indeed, it is past time to file most Western history books under fiction!
Then came even a bigger genetics study shock from Spain in early 2019. I have covered the news as below:
"- Major genetics news (March 2019) from Spain! Science has beaten history books once more, and the results fully support my theories, books and articles on the origin of Indo-European languages! The spread of Indo-European languages: genetic evidence, haplogroup info suggests Sumerian and Hurrian origins With special emphasis on the linguistic affiliations of Haplogroup J and R1b who migrated with J."
Linguistics and ArchaeologyThese genetic study results, and many others that I have covered in my books and website that showed previously unknown migrations across Eurasia as well as Americas, Africa and Ocenia confirmed some past language and history studies including my own, while rejecting main stream theories.
Basque language relations are among the first that need to be updated, along with Sumerian and others.
Why Basque is important for the history of languagesIt was already known that Basque, oldest language in Europe, was an ancient language whose roots probably went back to Paleolithic (Stone Age). I have covered Basque language and its relationship to other languages in three articles:
- The oldest language in Europe: Basque
- Archaeogenetics and the birth of human language,
- Spread of languages from Siberia
The above articles establish the basics for Basque as a Eurasian language.
With the latest genetics news from Spain that examined the last 8000 years of Spain, we now can confirm some Basque linguistic associations and also by extension add to the evidence for the original homeland of Indo-European languages. Spanish study ruled out Yamnaya as a Indo-European homeland which was the defacto thesis known as Kurgan Theory (Pontic Caspian Urheimat Theory) and offered further support to the SOuth of the Caucasus, Iran, East Anatolia origins of Proto-Indo-European.
Below is an excerpt from my Etruscan origins page, I updated after the study:
"Below is a broad graphic representation of the confirmed Bronze Age migration history of Europe: (based on The Arrival of Steppe and Iranian Related Ancestry in the Islands of the Western Mediterranean, March 2019. ).
"All genetics studies published in the last few years continue to offer further support to my research! See my map below from 2 years ago.
(Click to see full sized image)
Basque - North Caucasian relationship now confirmed!It was first suggested more than 100 years ago, and now it is confirmed by genetics study results. Bell Beaker people who migrated to Spain had their origins in Yamnaya (Pontic Caspian steppe) next to the North Caucasus. Moreover, the archaeologic relationship of Yamnaya with both Maykop and Steppe Maykop, a well as some genetic exchange is already established.
Hence the ancestors of the speakers of Basque or Vasconic languages were neighbors with the ancestors of Caucasians. So linguistics got that right. In fact, interestingly it was first suggested that Basque had linguistic relationship with both North and South Caucasian languages but in recent decades this was changed to strong linguistic ties to North Caucasian and weaker ties to South Caucasian languages such as Georgian. This is what genetics showed too!
Good linguistics always help reconstruct history.
Basque language R1b genetics associationStrong association of Basque language to one sublade of R1b, suggests relationhip with other R1b people and in general people from West and Central Asia which is thought to be the birthplace of haplogroup R1b. More importantly, we should note that R1b ancestry goes to Siberia, to the birthplace of R, and its sister subclade Q, and to the people known as Ancient North Eurasians.
Let us note that R1b works as a tracer dye here, not a definitive link between language and genes. The people with R1b genes spoke many different languages at different periods of history and mixed with others. Other people with different genetics spoke R1b languages. So the relationship between genes and languages is very complicated. Only at certain periods of time, under special circumstances, we see a strong link between genes and languages.
The people who were migrating in all directions, had their origins in Siberia - Central Asia continuum, this is what matters most for linguistics and cultural history of the world. And there were back migrations too.
Hence we can talk about the ancient cultures of Sİberia and Central Asia which are the least studied in the West. Even more, the people who were ancestral to Ancient North Eurasians came from within and near the Arctic circle in Siberia! They are called Ancient North Sİberians and are known from ancient genome information from over 30000 years ago from the archaeological site called Yana in Siberia.
Basque language associations and ancient migration as revealed by geneticsThere were migrations from Siberia/Central Asia to Europe, Americas and Africa. Now let's look at the suggested association of Basque language established decades before the genetics studies.
1. Basque - Caucasian suggested by linguists since the 1800s: Confirmed!
2. Basque - Afroasiatic suggested by Alfredo Trombetti in early 1900s: Confirmed! R1b v-88 is the first known evidence of Asia to Africa back migration. There are too few ancient genomes and there maybe many others people with different genetics. The fact that R1b-V88 exists and is strongly associated with Chadic languages spoken in Nigeria is evidence of a link. The relationship of Basque to Afroasiatic should be analyzed to clarify the language of the people who migrated in ancient times and its connection to others in Asia. The philologist Javier Martín compared it to Dogon, spoken in north-western Africa and this suggestion also should not be sidenlined.
3. Basque - Sino Tibetan was suggested again by Trombetti. That's confirmed, too.
4- Basque - Dene Caucasian suggested by the Moscow School, Sergei Starostin and others, and supported by John Bengstom and Merritt Ruhlen. Dene languages are spoken -by some of the North American poeples. Confirmed because all Native Americans are descendants of the people from Siberia. Sumerian origins where I discuss the genetic find the youngest so far direct descandant of Ancient North Eurasian In Caucasus who relates to Karitiana tribe in the Brazilian Amazon and Goerge Dumezil's work on the connection of the South American Quechuan languages to Turkish ans its relevance for Sumerian origins.
5- Basque - Sumerian. Confirmed. Sumerian is connected to Turkish, Hungarian, Finnish and Dravidian. These are the languages of Central Asia/Siberia. (See my articles above for links). I have also establisted Sumerians among the the Steppe Maykop people (via their Botai ancestry) neighboring both Vasconic and North Caucasian speakers. See Spread of languages from Siberia and also
There is a lot of work to be done because the relationship of languages varies, some are by contact, some by genetic affiliation. We need to go as deep in history as possible to determine the first human language or languages that descended from the first language.
Sumerian is the most helpful because we know it from the ancient records of 5000 years ago. However languages who are known from modern records and certainly have changed a lot by now, will help us with some words that resist change better than others like personal pronouns. So we have tools, computational linguistics, comparative method and also Sun Language Theory that I have proven at hand.
Basque and Turkish languageThis is the least studied area. I was able to find only one article online published in 1957 by Turkish linguist and ethnographer Hamit Zübeyr Koşay. The time and scope of relations of Basque and Turkish people based on comparison of languages,
The article is definitely worth a read and there are some very interesting comparisons and notes such as the contact of Turkish and Basque people in the North Eurasian forest zone and then their connections within the steppe.
Comparing Turkish and Basque is important and comparing both to Sumerian will reveal even more information on the languages people spoke in Eurasia at the period before the invention of writing.
As I have written above there are many words that are worth discussing and there are many others that I can add to the comparison of Hamit Zübeyr Koşay but there is one that stood out on multiple levels:
Basque and Turkish "Bee, Beehive, Honeycomb"Basque "erlakofoin" which he compares with Turkish "arı kovanı".
In Basque erla means bee and kofoin is behive, erlakofoin is formed by adding two words just like in English beehive.
This is interesting because "kovan/koğan" is a Turkish word from a Turkish verb "koy" meaning "to put/to pour", "kovu and kovuk" (hollow) and "kova" is bowl where you put a something, usually a liquid. Kovan is Turkish.
Turkish "Arı" and "Erla" are also quite close in sound and they both mean bee.
So we have two words that match. "Kofoin" is from Turkish and is a loan to Basque. You might it could be a recent Middle Ages loan but the word match also with bee makes it more interesting. Though "ezti" the word for honey in Basque does not match Turkish word for honey "bal", the word honeycomb in Basque "aba/abao" is definitely linked.
In Trask's etymological dictionary of Basque we find this info: habia (Z), abia (B) (1596), abi (B), kabi (G HN), afia (Sout) (1562), kabia (** G), kafia (HN L LN), aapi (G) n. ‘nest’. From *kabia, from Lat. caveam ‘enclosure, cage’ (Mitxelena 1961a: 51, 219). Variants by P14, P8, M4. The last form is curious. M. (1961a: 251) suggests that initial /k/ was restored under Roman influence.
There is more. Basque "Habe" (horsefly) seems derived from "aba" with an "h" initial which I had established as "uğ" (kind, family, like) and examples within Basque for words regarding man and ground/valley, "erri-herri" "haran" aran etc.
In the wiktionary article for Bee we can see Korean "beol" (bee), and I should add that Turkish "bal" (honey) is connected. (If you would like to know ancient connections between Korean and English Have a look at this expose English-Korean ancient links by linguist William Stoertz)
Back to Basque and Turkish comparison. Now we have three words that match and one doesn't and they all speficially related to bees and honey.
Basques as ancient people with roots in Eurasian forest zone were certainly no strangers to bees and honeymaking. So it is hard to consider the words as borrowings except for the word "kofoin" (kovan, beehive).
This and a few other words only found in Anatolia in the comparison list makes him suggest that Basque were in Anatolia at some period in time.
At this point I should mention two of my articles:
The word "earth" connects language families accross five continents, Asia, Europe, America, Africa and Australia. Moreover this connection is validated with genetic info from archaeogenetics and an independant linguistic study of m-t pronouns.
In the article on earth I refern to the name of the Harran valley in Southeast Turkey and compare it with the Basque word for valley "haran" along with Sumerian and Akkadian words for valley, land, earth, soil etc. And there is a valley in the Spanish Pyrenees: called Val d'Arran (or Val d'aran with one r)
The words for honey and mead across Eurasia, Mid-Central Africa and Polinesia show deep ancient connections.
I will continue with comparisons with Turkish, Basque, Sumerian and Akkadian. And I will add Hungarian and Afroasiatic too.
The common Mesopotamian substrate of Hungarian and Basque by Alfred Toth is interesting. Basque-Hungarian comparison on Dailymagyar
Click on image to read article
Haplogroup R1b and its subclade R1b- v88 found in Africa (from North Africa to Chad)From: The word earth in world languages shows deep ancient connections
Modern distribution of Haplogroup R1b
Usually genes do not correlate to languages, but there are exceptions. The further back in time one goes the higher the correlation. There are also many cases where one can rule out certain languages or favor others based on migration and population mixing information received from ancient genome studies.
The important genetic piece of evidence is the connection of Chadic languages to y-haplogroup R1b - v88 as well as to the people in North Africa and the Levant, since these haplogroups are from Asia. This Near Eastern connection establishes a major footstep in connecting Ancient languages and haplogroups/migrations.
R1b is born in Central Asia or Western Asia and its parent R, in Siberia.
Needless to say, I am not saying R1b as a sole responsible. Of course not. Yet, this genetic clade makes it slightly easier to follow the routes of ancient human migrations. Many haplogroups Q,N, R1a, J and others were involved. R1b works as a tracer dye and of course as migrations and population mixings occured so did linguistic changes. Detailed genetic and linguistic comparisons will provide the social, cultural and linguistic changes in ancient societies.
(Click to read the article and see full size image)
Origin and Spread of Languages on Eurasian Map based on Genetics Research and my books as of May 2019. The world's first known language Sumerian was favorably compared to many linguistic families in Eurasia and America. Comparing ancient Sumerian migration routes constructed from ancient genome studies to these languages will give the opportunity to trace back world languages to a common language spoken some 20000 years ago. read more
(Click on the image for the answer)
Sun Language TheoryTurkish academics say whatever the West tells them to say and there are too few people interested in history or languages in Turkey.
After Ataturk's death in 1938, Western propaganda arms told people in Turkey: "Nothing to see here, go find your written history records in Asia." And everyone in Turkey obeyed because, maybe except a few people out of tens of millions, there was no real Ataturkist in Turkey back then, just like today.
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Discover groundbreaking revelations on the roots of modern civilization in one short book. How did we arrive to where we are? How ancient civilizations a world apart, Sumer and Maya were connected. An overview that covers a wide range of topics from human migrations 50000 years ago to Gobeklitepe, the first temple in history, the first matriarchal society with written records, Elam, and to the Sun Cult of the Hattis. Their origins and influence on other ancient civilizations including their neighbors, distant relatives: Ancient Egypt, Ancient Greece, Hurrian, Scythian, Oguz, Kassite, Gutian, Hyksos and more. (Many of my articles on this website included)