By Mehmet Kurtkaya, First Published on November 28, 2017, Last Update: March 9, 2020
World's most comprehensive resource on the origins of the Etruscans. Includes all related genetic studies
made in the last 20 years, both on ancient genome and modern populations. Plus linguistic associations, archaeological data,
comparison of Sumerian, Hurrian and Graeco-Roman mythologies and more.
No Wikipedia style censorship, no cherry picking of data, no lying by omission. For those who like truth and real history.
The relationship of Indo-European languages to other languages in Eurasia: Etymology of daughter, milker, child, tribe, family, clan Relevant for Latin - Etruscan connection too! And equally important is the Etymology of the word "clan", Irish oglach, Greek Augeas, Etruscan clan and how Sumerian is related to all.
Words for foot and leg in world languages connect linguistic families in five continents
BREAKING NEWS March 21, 2019: Major genetics news from Spain! Science has beaten history books once more, and the results fully support my theories, books and articles regarding the origin of Indo-European languages! The results shocked many Steppe Theory enthusiasts and others who blindly accepted established theories. It's now time to put Steppe Theory in a kurgan! Direct implications for the Origins of the Etruscans, Latins and Rome, too. Read more at: The spread of Indo-European languages: genetic evidence, haplogroup info suggests Sumerian and Hurrian origins With special emphasis on the linguistic affiliations of Haplogroup J and R1b who migrated with J.
MARCH 22, 2019, Two more papers on genetic history of Ancient Sicily and Sardinia! Population history from the Neolithic to present on the Mediterranean island of Sardinia: An ancient DNA perspective and The Arrival of Steppe and Iranian Related Ancestry in the Islands of the Western Mediterranean
People with Iran - Turkey/Anatolia ancestry arrived in Sicily in around 1900 BC! Ancient genome samples were similar to Mycenaean Greece and Minoan Greece samples. Etruscans arrived in Italy during the Mycenaean period. I had already shown that Etruscans were part of the Mycenaeans and their first arrival to Italy is before the appearance of Etruria! In 1894, Paul Kretschmer has suggested an Etruscan substrate in Indo-European languages, and since then Etruscan / Tursenoi / Tyrrhennian was considered by a handful of European scholars as the pre-Greek substrate which constitute a large part of the Greek vocabulary. Congratulations to all European scholars in the last 140 years, including Italian linguists and scholars, who have offered evidence for the migration of the Etruscans from the Near East.
Below is a broad graphic representation of the confirmed Bronze Age migration history of Europe: (based on The Arrival of Steppe and Iranian Related Ancestry in the Islands of the Western Mediterranean, March 2019. ).
NOVEMBER 8, 2019, History of Italy the last 10,000 years: Ancient Rome: A genetic crossroads of Europe and the Mediterranean: It is final. Some Etruscans came from Anatolia, and other Etruscans from Eurasian steppes just like I had shown.
There is more! Romans starting with the Early Roman Empire were migrants from the Near East! So Latin language connection to the Near East is further proven on top of the Etruscan-Latin connection.
There is an interesting north African connection to one Etruscan sample, an outlier, as well that needs further inquiry.
It is final! Etruscans and a considerable numbers of Romans have Anatolian/Iran/Caucasian/Near Ancestry and others have Steppe Ancestry. This reconfirms my map above: two migration routes to Europe/Italy one from the North the other from the South from the Mediterranean originating in Anatolia/Syria.
MARCH 2020 UPDATE: New genetic study perfectly in line with my research and previous genetic studies: The spread of steppe and Iranian-related ancestry in the islands of the western Mediterranean by Daniel M. Fernandes et. al. re-reconfirms my book on the The Origins of Ancient Greece, the Etruscans, and Rome
Part I: The words for honey and mead across Eurasia, Mid-Central Africa and Polinesia show deep ancient connections.
All genetics studies published in the last few years offered further support to my research! See my map below from 2 years ago.
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Etruscans: Who were they and where did they come from?
Sarcophage from an Etruscan Tomb
Info on additional archaeological, mythological, linguistic research can be found in Etruscans' Journey from Turkey to Italy and their Origins in Southeastern Turkey, Northwestern Iran, Assyria and Mesopotamia which should be evaluated together with this one for a complete analysis of the Etruscan origins and their journey to Italy.
The origin of the Etruscans has been one of history's most debated topics.
In 2019, the evidence proving the origins of Etruscans is overwhelming, to say the least. Based on existing research and adding my own insight and research, I can say that I have solved the so-called puzzle.
The three interrelated questions must be answered simultaneously: their identity, their original homeland and the path they have taken to reach Italy.
Analysis of all the existing information from different fields, archaeology, linguistics, genetics, and history -including social structure, arts and mythology- answers this question unambiguously.
In total, ten genetic studies done between 1998 and 2019, on modern Tuscans, ancient Tuscan remains and Tuscan cattle, confirmed that Etruscans migrated from Turkey. These results are scientific and final. In fact, genetic tests done between 2008 and 2017, have also proven that the founders of Ancient Greece had migrated from Turkey and that the Mycenaean Greeks had some Siberian admixture too! Yes, Siberian/Eurasian Steppe.
Migrations were key for the spread of ancient civilizations!
Major Etruscan cities on Map from Wikimedia . New archaeological discoveries show that the Etruscan influence was more widespread than previously thought. Two new settlements were found, one in Sardiania in 2018 and one in Corsica in 2019.
The genetic studies done in 2018 and in 2019, continue to "amaze" (or shame) many archaeologists, historians and linguists who simply followed main stream Western lies emanating from social fields departments of Harvard, Oxford including (history, anthropology, economics etc.):. See for example About 4500 years ago, Britain's Stonehenge era population was replaced by migrating Bell Beaker people whose roots were in Central Asian steppes (ancestral home of the Turks)!
That's actually only one of the many migration waves to Britain from Eurasian steppes. An East-West direction can clearly be seen, compatible with Eurasian migrations of the last 25000 years. See Eurasian Migrations and Languages: Indo-European origins, Sumer, Yamna, Anatolia, Iran, and Indus Valley . There are also West-East back migrations for example from Pontic Caspian steppes/Yamna to the Altai mountains and India, or from Iran to Central Asia and the steppes but that does not change the main migration direction from Siberia/Central Asia towards the West.
The genetic studies done between 1998 and 2018 reveal the region Etruscans migrated from with a reasonable degree of accuracy that fits most linguistic associations suggested since the first major book on Etruscan studies The Origins of the Etruscans was written by English scholar Isaac Taylor, in 1874. He had suggested that the Etruscans were Turkic / Ugric / Uygur / Turanian:
His findings were confirmed by Bernard Carra de Vaux La langue étrusque; sa place parmi les langues published in 1911 and La langue étrusque by Jules Martha, in 1913. These authors had used Turkic, Finno-Turkish, Ugric and Turanian as attributes instead of Ugur (Oghur) Turkish.
On a blog post on Etruscan Origins some of the major points listed by French linguist Raymond Bloch in his 1954 book Les Étrusques which supports Asia Minor (Turkey) origins of the Etruscans, are as follows:
"Oriental characteristics of Etruscan civilization are too numerous and too imposing..."
"The types of evidence cited fall under the headings of:
- The position occupied by women among the Etruscans
- Artistic and religious fields
- Lack of archeological evolution (sudden appearance of advanced culture)"
Parallels between Sumerian and Etruscan studiesSumerian too was declared to be Turkish by English and European scholars including British researcher Edward Hincks who had deciphered cuneiform writing in the 1850s. See the History of Sumerian Turkish comparisons
And very interestingly, decades later, Etruscan was declared to be an isolate civilization with an isolate language just like the Sumerian, against all evidence pointing to the Turkish nature of their civilization.
Egyptian Pyramids derive from Sumerian Ziggurats! Sumerian Roots of Ancient Egyptian civilization and the role of Lapis Lazuli route from Afganistan to Egypt: The origins of Ancient Egypt
Part of the longest Etruscan text ever discovered, a linen book used as wrapping for an Egyptian mummy! Dated to 250 BC. A Croatian official had purchased a mummy as a souvenir while touring Egypt in the mid 1800s without knowing it was wrapped with the,only extant linen book, an Etruscan prayer book. Displayed in Zagreb Archaeological museum. The fabric of the book was preserved when it was used for mummy wrappings in Ptolemaic Egypt. Image from Wikimedia
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Origin and Spread of Languages on Eurasian Map based on Genetics Research and my books as of May 2019. The world's first known language, Sumerian was favorably compared to many linguistic families in Eurasia and America. Comparing ancient Sumerian migration routes constructed from ancient genome studies to these languages will give us the opportunity to trace back world languages to a common language spoken some 20,000 years ago. read more
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Etruscan as part of Sumerian, Greek, Roman origins studyHistory is a whole and not a collection of isolated events and people. The whole can be constructed by not only analyzing its parts but also connecting them based on material evidence.
Sumerian and Ugur (Huur=Hurrians), are two of the most overlooked civilizations in history. See:
Sumerian Influence on Ancient Rome
Ugur Turks / Hurrians founders of Ancient Greece
Sumerian Influence on Ancient Greece
Political Nature of the Etruscan Origins StudiesMany distinguished Italian scholars have indicated the political nature of Etruscan Origins discussions. They have also greatly contributed to the field of Etruscan research.
" I can never succeed in understanding why Italians still fail to recognize the enormous contribution that the Etruscan civilization has made to our Western civilization. We keep on believing the teaching that the Greeks and above all the Romans are the peoples to whom the Western world owes its origins. All of this is considerably exaggerated and based on historical falsehoods. However, I have ascertained instead that it is the Etruscans, coming from the East, who are the true founders of our European culture, for both good and bad aspects. "
Professor Graziano Baccolini, founder of mysteriousetruscans.com, a great website that must be consulted first to get an overview of this much neglected civilization.
A very important analysis On Etruscan Language written in 2013, by Italian linguistics Professor Massimo Pittau, author of "I Grandi Testi della Lingua Etrusca tradotti e commentati" (Sassari 2011), on Rina Brundu's website shows how Italian archaeologists have buried the truth Italian linguists had uncovered! There are many important remarks in this must-read article from Pittau.
There is also mention of important scholars including French Jean Berard and Jacques Heurgon in Massimo Pittau's article.
He shows how Herodotus' account on the Etruscans was supported by 30 others while Dionysius who is known to have disliked the Etruscans was the only dissenter! And that Italian archaeologists chose to accept Dionysius of Halicarnassus account over 30 others including that of Herodotus!
I should add that it is not only the Italian archaeologists who lied brazenly (or by omission) but also the majority of Western professors, including those who teach Classics at Oxford, Harvard etc.
It is obvious that Italian scholars have been much more truthful and curious about the origins of the Etruscans than the rest of the Western academics are about the origins of the Sumerians (for example see Oxford lies regarding Sumerian research, Case study: June 2017 twitter exchanges among many others).
Linguists in general have been much more correct and helpful than archaeologists regarding comparative analysis of civilizations -hence migrations and cultural interactions !
On the politics of Etruscan studies, Sabrina Loriga remarks: "From the Renaissance to the dawn of the twenty-first century, recurrent efforts have been made in the Italian Peninsula to erase or at least minimize the traces of the Etruscans’ relationship to the East. However, the question of their origin has been reworked and reshaped to various—and sometimes conflicting—political ends." See more at: Politics in Etruscan Studies in Italy
Etruscan vs. Roman civilizationsAccording to Pittau, there is still much work to be done in the field of comparative analysis of Etruscan-Roman and Etruscan-Greek civilizations, in both linguistic and cultural aspects.
Unfortunately, a remark in a 1996 book review Etruscan things are put down as a feeble Graeco-Roman imitation shows how.upside-down is Western take on history!
Roman civilization and Latin language is based on Etruscan and not the other way around!
And latest genetics research done in the last 10 years especially the research in 2016, and 2017 proved that the founders of Greek civilization migrated from Turkey (Anatolia), the very same land Etruscans migrated from ! I had already suggested this in my Sumerian Influence on Ancient Greece article long before that genetic study done on ancient grave remains was published! See Ugur / Hurrians, founders of Ancient Greece
Mythology including god names like Aplu, Aeneas myth, Haruspicy, Augury, Lemnos Stele, the funerary stela of Tarhunpiyas, Subria and More
Augur and Bird Augury
Learn more about this artwork in the Etruscan Mythology and Anatolia connection section. MAIN ARTICLE: Etruscan Mythology and the Turkey/Anatolia Connection
Linguistic Associations: Competing OR Complementing Suggestions ?
There are different types of relations between languages: Areal contacts, genetical relationship, and other influences.
To solve a high school algebra question such as the one below, involving three unknowns, one must use all the equations simultaneously.
x+2y+4z = 17
5x+3y+z = 14
It is impossible to solve them one by one.
Another analogy would be the proverbial description of the elephant by blinds, each making a conclusion based on the part of the elephant.
The question to be answered: Who is the elephant in the room?
Languages Related to EtruscanMAIN ARTICLE: Etruscan Language and its relation to other ancient and modern languages
Etruscan has been compared with varying degrees of success to: Turkish, Ogur Turkish, Ugric languages, Uralic and Altaic languages, Hurrian, Hungarian, Finnish, Anatolian Languages, Indo-European, Latin, Sanscrit, Greek, Albanian, Armenian, Celtic, Sumerian, Minoan, and Aegean languages.
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See the high concentration of languages in and around Turkey, but also note that there are other languages around Eurasia that Etruscan is related to.
ALL THE GENETIC STUDIES DONE IN THE LAST 20 YEARS TO DETERMINE THE ORIGINS OF THE ETRUSCAN PEOPLEMAIN ARTICLE: Etruscan DNA, Genetics, and Haplogroups
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God, People, King Names, major words related to power to rule, formation of family , sun, fire: TUR and TAR, and their derivatives TUROG, TURUK, TURUS/TURS, TIR, TER, TR-, DR-, SYR, SURMain Article: Another world's first. Analyzing ancient history through the use of the root word/suffix "TAR" What do the kings Sargon of Akkad, Macedonian Greek Alexander the Great and Persian Darius the Great have in common?
One of the most stable sounds through 5000 years of recorded history: Sumerian word for king Lugal vs Akkadian Shar/Sharru, Hatti Taru, Hittite Tarhun, Celtic Taranis, Greek Tartaros, Latin Gladiator, Arabic Taraqa TAR: Revealing the linguistic landscape of the Ancient Near East and Anatolia, establishing the roots of Indo-European and Afroasiatic languages Identifying migrations together with Archaeogenetics data!
The relationship between Turkish, Hurrian, Avestan, Hungarian words for fire, English dawn, wood, Sumerian sun and kiln / hearth, Latin and Persian black: Fire of the sun cult in ancient Iran, and the word for fire in Hurrian, Avestan, Turkish, and the word for water in Balkan and Slavic languages Updated February 4.
Continuing Another world's first: The etymology of the word "dark", the opposite of light, tells the connection between Sumer, Iran-India and the British Isles
The origins of Indo-European languages proven: Father, Mother, Water, Daughter
Master, Meister, Magister, Minister
Nektar / Nectar
Etymology of the word Turuk / Turk
A user by the name Adyghe Chabadi cites some of the ancient ethnonyms and suggests a root word:
Tyrsenoi, Turrhenioi (Attic Greek), Tursenoi (Ionic), Tursanoi (Doric), Tyrrheni (Latin), Tusci (Latin), *Tursci > Turskum (Umbrian), Etrusci (Latin) and Tursis (Greek) > Turris (Latin), Tyrannos (Greek), tyrannus (Latin), Turan (Etruscan goddess) are related then an Eastern identification can be educatedly set forward. The hypothetical root word is *turs-."
An important comment but it needs some small corrections and major additions. The root word one should actually look for is Tur(u), it became Turuk and Tur(u)s.
Etruscan city Atria, and Adriatic which derives from Atria, also has the ATR- stem. It is one of the rare toponyms which has the initial "A" (E) as in the word Etruscan. The correct etymology of the word Etrusci / Etruscan can be found in my book: English was Turkish: Sumerian roots of Indo-European Languages
Etruscan an Evidence of the Ethnic Name is a short but a very important historical linguistics work by Iurii Mosenkis. He shows that Tyrrenians are of Hurro- Urartian origin. Included links to Iberian peninsula, Balearic Islands, as well as mention of the Russian linguist Nicholas Yakovlevich Marr's suggestion that the Etruscans migrated from the Van lake area (Eastern Turkey) via Lydia (Western Turkey) on the Aegean sea to Italy.
Marr probably was not aware of the Turukkaeans at the time, otherwise he seems mostly correct, as the genetic studies proved beyond any reasonable doubt (see above) the original location as Turuk Kaganligi / Turuk Kingdom of Itabal (Itabalhum) around the Urumiye basin and southeastern Turkey.
Turuska (Sanskrit term for Turks, or land of the Turks, later for Muslims). Tur / Tyr can be found in city names in the Ancient World around the Mediterranean. There are some variants too, like the name Tarsisi, Akkadian of Tarsus, based on local god name Tarku.
In fact, TUR and TAR are also closely related as seen in Turkish Tarkan, and Tarquin, and Taurus mountains. Note the use of both the "u" and "a" sounds as if it is a superimposition of "Tar" and "Tur", hence the sound "Tor". Taru Hatti supreme god, equivalent of the Hurrian supreme god Tessub, Taur is the name of the Anatolian bull cult.
Tartar (Tar+Tar) or Tatar is a major ethnonym for the Turks from Central Asia. In Russia, the word Turk is synonymous with Tatar. Ancient Greek god Tartarus is probably related.
Ancient Spanish Tartessian, Tartessos are equally related and Basque - Caucasian linguistic relations are known.
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Map from my book "Sun Language Theory Proven: The Birth of Civilizations and Languages"
Etruscan Bronze statuette of a Scythian mounted archer in Italy!
Scythians were the founders of the first major Eurasian Steppe empire in history. See the main article Scythians for more info.
This early 5th century BC artwork is from a funerary urn in Italy, belonging to Etruscan (Tuscany), Campanian (Southern Italy) culture. It has Western Anatolian (Phyrigian) cap and Central Asian (Scythian) jacket! Read the full description of this statuette in the New York Metropolitan Musuem website
Turuk Kaganligi / Turuk Kingdom a major power in Western Asia (Near East) 2200-800 BC
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Reading of the ethnonym Turuk from cuneiform tablets by F. Celilov - Baku, 2006 :
MAIN ARTICLE: Turuk Kingdoms and Etruscans' Long Journey from Iran/Eastern Anatolia!
Turuk (Turukkeans) kingdoms in the Near East were analyzed by Western scholars since at least 60 years! Yet, they are mentioned with only a few lines in Wikipedia, much less than Assyrian kings. Turuk history in the region can be derived from cuneiform Mesopotamian records mostly from the 19-18 century BC (Susharra / Shemsharra archives among others) but also from 1300-1200 BC Assyrian records too.
Unfortunately, only a few people in the world study this civilization. Even then, the existing information tells a lot about the Turuk kingdoms in Southeast Turkey, Northern Syria, Iraq and Northwestern Iran some 4200-2200 years ago. They and their land are referred to as Turukkum (Turuk+Ku+UM using additive nature of Turkish), Turukkeans, Turukkaeans, Turukki, and Turukku. This inconsitency is due to their refusal to use the original word Turuk.
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Etruscan is an Oghur Turkish (Hurrian) language with Anatolian characteristics!Oghur (Hurrian) is one of the three branches of the Turks, Turuk (Etruscan) is the name of the people. Just like today Kazak, Turkmen, Kirgiz people are Oguz Turks but have some differences in culture and language.
Sardinia, Italy - Sardis Lidya, Turkey - Sherden of the Sea Peoples Egypt and UgaritThe so-called mysterious Sea Peoples were a confederation of Peoples/Tribes just like the Turuk.
In the very important article of Italian linguistics Professor Massimo Pittau titled On Etruscan Language, we find a very important remark:
"There are quite numerous and quite obvious cultural and linguistic connections that bind with Asia Minor or Anatolia also the ancient civilization of Sardi Nuragici of Sardinia, which was the first “civilization” of Italy, as it has preceded that of Etruscans of four centuries (XIII-IX BC). There is also some information from ancient Greek historians, which shows that even the Sardi Nuragici came – just as the Etruscans – from the previously mentioned Lydia in Asia Minor. And it is also very likely that Sardinians have derived their name and that of their country Sardo-Sardinia from the name of Sardis or Sardeis, the capital of Lydia."
- Etruscan settlement found in Sardinia for the first time! January 8, 2018.-
Sardes in Lydia Turkey, Sherden Sea People in Egypt, and Sardinia in Italy are the same people. King Sarduris in Urartu, Eastern Anatolia is related too, as Turuk first migrated to Western Anatolia from Eastern Turkey before sailing to Italy.
Turuk in Troy, Lydia and Eastern Turkey and Trsh (Tursa, Tursha) in Egypt and Tursenoi in Greece, Tyrrhennian / Etruscans in Italy are the same people.
Sherden and Teresh were part of the Sea People alliance and were most probably related to each other in Anatolia, Turkey (Troy and Sardes in Lidya). This also suggests Anatolia and maybe parts of the Mycenaean Greece were the most probable origin of the Sea Peoples.
The founders of Sardinian civilization and the name Sardinia can be connected to Sardes, Lydia, Turkey.
Sardes was most probably Tartes as Afroasiatic Sherdan "şrdnn(m)" was written in Ugaritic as "trtn(m)". Ugaritic was Ugur/Oghur Turkish which evolved into Afroasiatic.
Comparing şrdnn(m) and trtn(m) we find "t > ş/sh" and "t > d" sound correspondances.
This makes sense as "t> ts> s", "s > sh", "t > d", and "d > s" sound transformations are observed in other Mesopotamian records as well.
So if we apply the reverse transformation to Sardes we arrive at the original sound: Tartes. This is what we find in Iberian peninsula Spain! Tartessos and Turudi in Iberian pre-Roman Spain are the same or closely related people. This would explain the existence of the toponym "Iber" both in Caucasia and Spain. Basque, Sumerian, Etruscan are related to each other and to Caucasian languages.
From The Etruscan Domination of the Sea (Thalassocracy) :
"According to various sources, the Etruscans colonised Corsica, the Balearic islands and the coasts of Spain (Stephanus of Byzantium), and there are records (Diodorus Siculus) of the struggle with the Phoenicians for an island in the Atlantic (possibly Madeira).
The names of the Tyrhhenian and the Adriatic seas came from the Etruscans (the Adriatic from the Etruscan city of Adria)."
Nuragic ceramics found at Tiryns, Mycenea simply shows the Turkish sea network in the Meditarranean before the so-called "Phoenicians" who were a mix of Hurrians and Afroasiatic people from the Levant.
One of the region names in Turuk kingdom around Lake Urmia in Iran and Southeast Turkey was Nurrugum, and Nurduggum is a city in Northern Mesopotamia and they are related to Nuragici of Sardinia civilization of Sardinia. See more in Etruscans' Journey from Turkey to Italy and their Origins in Southeastern Turkey, Northwestern Iran, Assyria and Mesopotamia
See also Etymology of the word Turk based on Mesopotamian written records)
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Discover groundbreaking revelations on the roots of modern civilization in one short book. How did we arrive to where we are? How ancient civilizations a world apart, Sumer and Maya were connected. An overview that covers a wide range of topics from human migrations 50000 years ago to Gobeklitepe, the first temple in history, the first matriarchal society with written records, Elam, and to the Sun Cult of the Hattis. Their origins and influence on other ancient civilizations including their neighbors, distant relatives: Ancient Egypt, Ancient Greece, Hurrian, Scythian, Oguz, Kassite, Gutian, Hyksos and more. (Many of my articles on this website included)