By Mehmet Kurtkaya, Published on November 8, 2017 (Updated with new links and info on May 11, 2018)
I have solved the 100 year old puzzle, "Who were the founders of Ancient Greece", and my solution has been proven
by the most recent genetic and linguistic research studies done in 2016 and 2017.
You might be tempted to say, "Is that a trick question?" or "That's no brainer, the Greeks founded Ancient Greece". Unfortunately, this is part of the Western propaganda that distinguished dissident scholars from the UK, France, Germany, Italy, US, and Finland, (in addition to some Hungarian, Russian, and Turkish researchers) have been challenging since the discovery of the Sumerians in the 1850s! Incidentally, 1850s also marked the start of the Western propaganda and the construction of the idea of "the West" after the failed revolutions of 1848!
"The days of exclusively 'classical' scholarship is over. To write about Greek literature without knowing something of the West Asiatic has become as impossible as studying Roman literature without knowledge of Greek."
The above quote is from distinguished English scholar Martin Litchfield West's book The East Face of Helicon: West Asiatic Elements in Greek Poetry and Myth published in 1997. He was one the few scholars, who challenged the official narrative with hard facts indicating that Greek civilization was based on a prior civilization in Western Asia (Turkey, Iraq and Syria).
The book's preface contains very important remarks, and 20 years on, it is at least as valid, if not more so today.
On this website and in my book Sumerian Turks: Civilization's Migration from Siberia to Mesopotamia, I had shown that Ugur Turks / Huur / Hurrian were the founders of Ancient Greece before this August 2017 landmark genetic study published on Nature ( Daily Mail summary) proved that the founders of the Minoan Greek civilization (starting around 2500 BC) in Crete island and Mycenaean civilization (1600-1100 BC) in mainland Greece had migrated from neighboring Anatolia (Turkey).
Anatolian origin of Minoan Crete was already suggested in a genetic study published on the Annals of Human Genetics in March 2008: Genetic study linking differential Y-chromosome Anatolian Influences on the Greek and Cretan Neolithic on existing populations.
The study also mentions parallels in the archeobotanical records from Syria, along with parallels between Knossos and their central Anatolian predecessors/contemporaries, based on their common use of mud-brick technology and shared suites of domesticates, with particular reference made to breadwheat (Triticum aestivum).
There is an interesting forum discussion from the time of the study, 2008, where at least one user presents evidence for Hurrian influence on Crete: Minoan Civilization originated in Anatolia and has many interesting comments, among them:
"There is other supportive evidence that links materials found in the Middle Minoan period 1700BC, to those in Cilicia, Crete and Troy. Hurrian merchants could have easily settled into parts of the Aegean, as their population lived near the coast. Its also interesting to note that one of the Linear A words read with Linear B values mentions TURUSA and IDA."
The 2017 genetic study done on ancient grave remains shows that the founding population migrated to Greece from Anatolia, but it does not indicate anything about its identity or language. True, but during this time period in Anatolia (3000-1600 BC) there were only two major civilizations: the Ugat / Gat / Hatti and the Ugur / Gur / Hurrian!
Massive Migration Waves from Western Asia towards EuropeFounders of Ancient Greece must be studied together with the founders of Ancient Rome: Etruscan Origins Proven.
Ugur - Huur (Hurrians)Hurrians vastly influenced, if not outright founded together with the Gat (Hatti) people, the famed Hittite Empire under the so-called "Indo European" invading rulers coming from the East. The Hurrians were one of the most important ancient Eastern civilizations yet among the least studied wrote Gertnot Wilhelm in The Hurrians published in 1998.
The main reason for me to conclude that Hurrians were the founders (the major founding people) of Ancient Greece long before that 2017 genetic study, was the great number of major similiarities between the Sumerian and Ancient Greek civilizations that proved beyond any doubt that there was a foundational relation between the two!
I had started out a few years back doing research on the origins of Sumerians. During my research I delved into the history of Sumerian neighbors. Among them the people (mis)named as Hurrians stood out.
There was maybe a handful of people in the world who had theorized that Hurrians were the founders of Minoan and Mycenaean Greece. I had come accross of only one (see below) until that time. I added new links in the last month (November 27, 2017) but I guess there may be other info and papers that I was unable to find during my extensive internet searches.
As far as I know, noone except me had claimed Ancient Greece, (Minoan, Mycenaean and Classical Greece) was founded by the Hurrians. And noone claimed that Hurrians were Ugur Turks.
And almost no Western academic, no ancient studies scholar I emailed wrote back about the content of my website after I launched this site on April 2016. They ignored and denied.
However, the people who had never thought about the existence of the Hurrian language in Cretan Linear A have no choice but to accept Hurrians as the founders of Minoan civilization in the face of overhelming physical evidence, yet they do not accept that the word Huur (The basis of the civilization's name Hurrian) is misspelled Ugur.
Still, this will be a step forward for the Western academic community, at least they have to accept the fact that Hurrians were the founders of Ancient Greece, like I had already shown based on existing evidence. Other people among the founders of Mycenaean Greece might be the GuzGut (Scythian) Turks or Kuman mixed with them (probably the Siberian /Eastern European genetic component mentioned in the genetic study) along with Gat / Hatti Turks.
In my articles and books, I have given almost 10 reasons why the sound h in "Hur" should be "Turkish voiced g" and not h while Western academics have given no reason why it is established as h and not "voiced g". The dispute about the name is important because the name of the people indicate their identity and would certainly help in linguistic research, especially on Indo-European and Proto-Indo-European language studies. See more at Misnamed Huur / Hurrians/ Hurrites are Ugur/Gur (Later known as Oghur Turks)
It was really not that difficult to prove that Ugur / Hurrians, the most overlooked civilization in history along with the Sumerian, were the founders of Ancient Greece. "Mysterious Hurrians" is what academics wrote about them, for the simple reason that no more than a handful of academics in the world worked on Ugur / Hurrian. Many tablets sit untranslated in museum storages! Even then, the amount of information currently available is amazing.
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Map from my book "Sun Language Theory Proven: The Birth of Civilizations and Languages"
Sumerians and Hurrians are the same people: Ugur Turks (Ogur, Oghur)I have shown in my books, mostly by using research papers readily available on the internet, that Sumerians and Hurrians were actually part of the same people. They were both Ugur Turks (Oghur, Ogur), and that they had migrated to Iraq (named Sumerians) and Anatolia (named Hurrians) in about the same time period, some 5000-6000 years before present.
I analyzed existing research from distinguished dissident Western scholars and I have used Ataturk's Sun Language theory, and his assertion that Sumerians were Turks from Central Asia, as the basis I built upon. Ataturk's research provided a major advantage for me, Westerners and overwhelming majority of Turks and Turkish academics in Turkey lacked because they had chosen to mock the Sun Language Theory and stick to the mainstream Western academic lies (See also my twitter exchanges with Oxford Assyriology graduates account).
Sumer and Minoan Greece were contemporaries but Mycenaean and Classical Greece appeared after Sumerian "ended"! So I decided to do an extensive research on how the Sumer-Greek connection was established, something mainstream Western scholars hardly worked on as they considered all major civilizations as isolates, in addition to shunning "hyperdiffusionism". It is a pity to see the same attitudes among some Russian linguists, though some major Russian historians and genetics research scholars such as Anatole Klyosov and Norm Kisamov among others published original and quite important research that would support Ataturk's Sun Language Theory. See more on Sumerian influence on Ancient Greece and Ancient Rome for starters.
The first study I was able to find on my extensive searches on the internet showing Minoan as Greater Hurrian (in addition to Mycenaean) is dated to 2011: Case for Minoan as Greater Hurrian. This article from an American amateur researcher is well worth reading!
Continuity of Place Names from Eastern and Southeastern Anatolia, Northern Syria, Iraq to Greece:Paul Kretschmer's study of pre-Greek elements in ancient Greek in his 1896 "Einleitung in die Geschichte der griechischen Sprache" (Introduction to the History of the Greek Language) was the first connecting places names in Ancient Greece and Turkey (Anatolia). He concluded that a non-Greek, Mediterranean culture had preceded the Greeks!
Hungarian math professor Alfred Toth remarked that Paul Kretschmer was the first to suggest the basic aspects of a Trryhennian (Tursenoi) linguistic group long before German researcher Helmut Rix officially proposed it.
A landmark article "The Coming of the Greeks" by J.B. Haley and C.W. Blegen published in 1928 (American Journal of Archaeology, Second Series, Vol. XXXII, No, 2) was the first in establishing linguistic union acrosss Ancient Greece and Turkey, for city names ending with nthos/-ntha or -(s)sos/-(s)sa, like Zackynthos, Knossos in Greece or Assos, Ephesos in Turkey and Cyprus.
An important study by the biochemist and ancient language researcher, Hungarian scholar Andras Zene dated to 2010 shows the homogeneity of toponyms (place and city names). His very informative maps, one each for city names ending with -ndos, -na and -sos are based on studies by Blegen and Hailey, Best & de Vries & Brill book: Thracians and Myceneans, 1989, based on the 1984 dated conference on Thracians and Mycenaeans seminar among others.
See Maps based on non-Greek city name endings: pre-Greek in Greece and Turkey.
Some info of the westward spread of Ugur / Hurrian language in Anatolia some 3600 years ago can be seen in the Sirkeli Hoyuk website, History of Clicia article: "Around the end of the Middle Bronze Age (ca. 1600 BC) the Hurrian Language and Religion spread out in Cilicia and mingled with the local Luwian language, an Indo-European language which is related to the Hittite language." This is the general area of the Kingdom of Kizzuwatna.
Ugur - Hurrian Geographic and Historic continuity from the Caucuses, Iran, Iraq, Syria, Turkey to Italy, Hungary, Switzerland, British IslesUgur/Gur/Hurrians were known to have occupied a large area from Northern Syria and Northern Iraq to Southern and Eastern Turkey, Iran, all the way to the Caucuses. But their existence beyond, especially in the West, and the North was unknown.
They were known as the Northern and Eastern neighbors of the Sumerians and traded with them! Copper related terms in the Sumerian language derive from Ugur / Hurrian language! They had a civilization level not too inferior to the Sumerians.
Minoan Linear A Script is largely Hurrian, and related to SumerianOne of the major historical linguistics puzzles is now being solved. Minoan Linear A is shown by the Dutch scholar Peter G. Van Soesbergen to contain Gur/Hurrian language Minoan Script, Hurrians and Hurrian Language .
One of Peter Van Soesbergen's many articles on Academia can be found at Comment November 3, 2017 about discussions on Linear A and libation tables.
I was able to find two short but important pages on the internet on Hurrian names in Minoan Linear A: Linear A hurrian names from 2004 and Alalakh Minoan Hurrian discovery by Norwegian scholar Bjarte Kaldhol in 1998!
Establishing the West-Ugric Language Family with Minoan, Hattic and Hungarian by a Decipherment of Linear A by Peter Z. Revesz Department of Computer Science and Engineering, University of Nebraska-Lincoln.
This paper is amazing not only in its novel approach but correctly identifies Minoan Linear A as Ugric (my note: Ugur/Hurrian). In fact it reconfirms previous research that showed Minoan Linear A as Hurrian (Ugur) by Peter van Soeasbergen.
Ugur Turkish / Gur / Hurrian LanguageThe first so-called Indo-European language, Hittite, appeared in written records in Anatolia/Turkey some 3600 years ago! That's about 1500 years after the first Sumerian Turkish cuneiform records were written.
There are some important linguistic suggestions for the Etruscan language and together they define Etruscan: Etruscan is an Ogur (Augur) / Hurrian language but also has major similarities to Anatolian and some Caucasian languages (mainly the work of Igor Djakonoff & Sergei Starostin - Hurro-Urartian as an Eastern Caucasian language - among others) as well as Hungarian (GunUgar=Hungar, MaGor=Magyar). This is perfectly in line with genetic and archaeological studies!
I suggest this linguistic progression for Romance Languages such as French, Italian, Spanish:
Sumerian Turkish > Ugur/Gur Turkish (Hurrian) > Etruscan / Turuk > Latin > Spanish/French/Italian/Portuguese
Gat/Hattic may have had an influence on Indo-European languages in addition to Hurrian. The birthplace of some Indo European languages is Anatolia (Turkey).
Turuk / Etruscan were Ogur Augur Turks (Hurrian) and together with Oguz and Ugut Turks and Iranian Indo Europeans (Sycthian=GuzGut) they founded Ancient Rome 2800 years ago. Etruscan language was also the basis of the Latin language.
Mel Copeland's great article/book on Etruscan can be found at Maravot. He correctly identifies Latin as based on Etruscan language using declention patterns but incorrectly classifies Etruscan as Indo-European. Etruscan is Ogur Turkish / Hurrian. Sumerian - Akkadian, Hurrian/Hattic - Hittite, Etruscan - Latin relationships shows a pattern. Moreover, SOV (subject-object-verb) to SVO is the historical word order change direction. SOV was shown as the word order of the world's first language based on many studies.
Etruscan is related to Hungarian as confirmed by Italian linguistics professor Mario Allinei's as well as Hungarian math professor Alfred Toth's articles.
In case your browser does not display the special Turkish sound voiced g I have changed voiced g's to g's in the text of this article. In Turkish alphabet the order of the letters is: abcdefg(voiced g)h.... The sound g is between g and h and does not exist in Western languages, Indo-European and AfroAsiatic languages but it does exist in Sumerian the first known human language and Turkish! Hu-ur-ri = Ug-ur is misread/misused in Western languages as Hurrian, Hurrite, Khurri, Churri etc. This is another proof that the sound voiced g in Western texts is not stable and is represented with h, kh or ch among others. Hu-ur-ri = Huur = Ugur / gur (Hurrian) Sumerian Ug=People Sumerian Ur= People, Base (city, city people) Turkish Ug= People, kinship, son as in Ugur, Ogur, Oguz, Oglan...
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Sumerian Influence on Ancient Greece
Sumerian Influence on Ancient Rome
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Discover groundbreaking revelations on the roots of modern civilization in one short book. How did we arrive to where we are? How ancient civilizations a world apart, Sumer and Maya were connected. An overview that covers a wide range of topics from human migrations 50000 years ago to Gobeklitepe, the first temple in history, the first matriarchal society with written records, Elam, and to the Sun Cult of the Hattis. Their origins and influence on other ancient civilizations including their neighbors, distant relatives: Ancient Egypt, Ancient Greece, Hurrian, Scythian, Oguz, Kassite, Gutian, Hyksos and more. (Many of my articles on this website included.)