By Mehmet Kurtkaya, Published on January 20, 2019 Updated October 19, 2019
This article must be considered together with Water, Father, and Mother: Indo-European Languages derive from Turkish and the etymology of the words nektar and master.
What do the kings Sargon of Akkad, Macedonian Greek Alexander the Great and Persian Darius the Great have in common?
They won many wars and conquered territories. They were powerful. They also had "dar/shar" in their name: Šarru-kēn, Alexan+dar, Dar+ayus.
Shar is the Afroastiatic equivalent of Tar and it means king. "T" became "Sh". So Sargon (Šarru-kēn) is the Afroasiatic equivalent of Turkish and Etruscan "Tarkan". The word Tarkan became Sharken/Sharruken in Afroasiatic.
In my books and articles I had shown that "Tar" is a central root word in Indo-European languages and it is used as a suffix in most basic words such as father, mother, daughter, sister, brother, water, as well as in Latin pronouns such as Nostra (Nos+tar/tra), Vostre (Vos+ter/tre) in addition to many other words relating to power such as magister, minister, nektar etc. I have identified that the sound TAR conveys power and was originally a religious term that gave kings the power to rule.
It is also used in the most important Anatolian Indo-European god Tarhun (Tarhunz / Tarhunt / Tarku), as well as Etruscan king Tarkan (Tarchon), and Indian god Indara / Indra.
As you can see these are major words relating to the building blocks of a society as well as to its political organization.
What does Tar mean? How do we know that it is Turkish?We should look at written Sumerian records first. We should also see if the etymology of this one syllable root word can be constructed using Turkish. Normally one syllable root words are not to be analyzed as they seem to be indivisable, but since it is an ancient word in the form of Consonant-Vowel-Consonant one can look if it had an initial vowel which later dropped. Using Sun Language Theory, we can easily see that this was indeed the case: Tar has Turkish etymology just like Tanrı / Dingir / Tengri.
Similarly, Sumerian word for god: Dingir (=Turkish Tengri) is a very strong indication that Sumerians were Turks because Tengriism (belief in Dingir/Tengri) is a Central Asian religion, only Turks, Mongols, Hungarians and Hun / Xiong-Nu Empire (predominantly Turkic, with Mongol participation) practice(d) in the entire history of mankind!
Before starting word analysis, I should say that in cuneiform records we notice consonant sound changes, and I have shown the direction of some of these sound changes relating to the consonant T as follows:
t > ts > s
s > sh
d > s
Hence, T is the original sound observed in the above sound changes. T becomes D, S or SH. This is a very important piece of information: the change happens because of another people adapting it.
D is mostly Indo-European while S and SH are mostly Afroasiatic. Note that I use "mostly". While these transformations take place many words are left as is, with an original T.
The equivalence of Sumerian "Tar/Dar" to Turkish "yar" both meaning split open was already recognized by Osman Nedim Tuna. D > y is a common and well-established sound change hence the two words are one and same.
The root word for the Anatolian Weather god TarhunIn the Wikipedia article for Tarhunz, the name of the god and its derivatives are listed as:
"The name of the Proto-Anatolian Weather god can be reconstructed as *Tṛḫu-ent-, a participle form of the Proto-Indo-European root, *terh2; Hittite, tarḫu-, meaning "to cross over, pass through, overcome" (also the source of the Latin word trans-, the Dutch door, German word durch, and the English through). The same name was used in almost all Anatolian languages (Hittite: Tarḫunna-; Carian: Trquδ- and Lycian: Trqqas (A), Trqqiz (B), which was identified with Zeus)."
Looks good, except Indo-European reconstruction is listed as "*terh" instead of Tar.
Even though "h" is a minor addition to the root end, this issue must be resolved to construct the correct word!
In the beginning of the article I have mentioned that I had proven Tar and its derivative Ter is used in most basic Indo-European words including god names. In my "Sun Language Theory Proven! The Birth of Languages and Civilizations" book I had shown how crucial ancient languages based on sun and sky worship were in the development of human languages. Hence, god names are very important. They are used as king, mountain, river, city, region names as well as personal names. I have shown that the initial religious terms such father and water became mundane terms used everyday.
Uğatti / Hatti had a pre-Indo-European god known as Taru. And it is known that the Indo-European god names are based on this name. Here we observe no "h".
It has been correctly suggested that the god name Tarhu should have been read as Taruh instead of Tarhu. (See HITTITE ETYMOLOGIES AND NOTES)
This would make the word tar-uḫ= Taruh. H breve is used instead of a regular h.
TAR is the root word as I have suggested previously, and Taruğ would be "the people of Tar", "kin of Tar", "the family of Tar". Using ğ instead of "ḫ" not only gives meaning to the word but its use is validated with the existence of the Sumerian word Uğ meaning same (people). Moreover these two sounds are very close. While ḫ is a constructed sound ğ is a sound known and used since at least 4000 years in Sumerian and Turkish!
There is more. It is generally accepted that the city name Tarsus derives from local Hurrian god Tarku! This is only possible if the root word was Tar instead of Tarh: Tar+ku and Tar+sos, there is no h in either word. Hence it implies that "Tar" as a root is already accepted. Also, note that -sos is the typical pre-Greek suffix found in Turkey and Greece.
The famed city of Troy was Taruisa in Hittite records. Here too, we find TAR.
Tarbisu (near Nineveh), Terqa, Tarqanu are some of the ancient city names in Northern Mesopotamia beginning with TAR. The famed Kingdom of Dilmun was located in Tarout Island in the Persian Gulf, and was located to the south of the Sumer lands.
Dardania was located in the Northwestern corner of Anatolia, to the immediate north of Troy, and facing modern Gallipoli across the Dardanelles. The Trojans and Dardanians were probably of the same stock. Here we see Tar > Dar. Ancient Roman city of Tarentum (formerly the Greek colony of Taras) and many other cities in the Mediterranean have the Tar, Tra, Dra root sound in their names. Ancient Spanish Tartessian, Tartessos are equally related and Basque - Caucasian linguistic relations are known. Indian god Rta may be a metathesis of TAR.
After establishing the root word as Tar it becomes obvious that the single consonant "h" means something and this can only be the Turkish "uğ" which is a family/tribe marker. I have shown that this sound can be transformed to many other consonants; ğ > h was already well established.
Tar and its derivatives as a major word in languages across EurasiaTartar or Tatar is an ethnonym which was and still used to define Turks. Tartar is a word duplication and has the original T sound.
Thor the Norse god, is related. (T > th). The ethnonyms Dorians (root Dur or Dar) who invaded Ancient Greece, Thracians (root Tar or Tur) are certainly related.
The son of Turuk (Turukkaeans) Zagros King Nassumar was named Tarugur (Tar+Ugur). The mythical founder of the Scythian Empire was Targitaos.
Akkadian equivalent of Sumerian Inanna was named Ishtar. Indian Dharma has also Tar/dar as a root.
Aramaic god Tar'atheh, god names known from Ugarit such as Ațtart, ʿAštart (called Astarte in Greek), Atargatis were among the major gods in the Levant starting with the Bronze Age.
In languages across Eurasia from Siberia to Western Europe, Northern Africa and the Middle East and Southern Asia we find the root Tar/Dar as a marker of governance, enforcement, physical force in daily use in addition to its presence in Ancient god names.
The word Mediterranean has TER(ra) meaning earth, land in it. No surprises here, as the word land relates to godly power of the kings. This is what made ancient theocratic societies.
From Tarim basin China to Tartessos, Spain we find Tar. We even find it in the name of the ancient medicinal herb from Siberia: tarragon!
Ancient Greek Trakon, the source of the word Dragon also has Tar root.
Hurrian god Sarruma was most probably Tarruma.
From my book "The Origins of Ancient Greece, the Etruscans and Spain":
Sardes was most probably Tartes as Afroasiatic Sherdan "şrdnn(m)" was written in Ugaritic as "trtn(m)". Ugaritic was Ugur/Oghur Turkish which evolved into Afroasiatic.
Comparing şrdnn(m) and trtn(m) we find "t > ş/sh" and "t > d" sound correspondances.
This makes sense as "t> ts> s", "s > sh", "t > d", and "d > s" sound transformations are observed in other Mesopotamian records as well.
So if we apply the reverse transformation to Sardes we arrive at the original sound: Tartes. This is what we find in Iberian peninsula Spain! Tartessos and Turudi in Iberian pre-Roman Spain are the same or closely related people. This would explain the existence of the toponym "Iber" both in Caucasia and Spain. Basque, Sumerian, Etruscan are related to each other and to Caucasian languages.
In Was ‘Scythian’ an ‘Iranian’ language? Borisoff mentions criticizes Abaev' work but the real gem is in the following words:
"Scythian Ardar ‘master, ruler, knjaz’; Ossetian ældar, from Alanian adopted into Hungarian (aladar) and Mongolian (aldar)."
The Tar/Dar is used as a suffix in words defining ruler, king. This is along the word Targitaos mythical founder of Scythia!
There is more in Slavic and Sanskrit the word also is used as a marker of physical force. Moreover "dar" is also the basis for the English word "door".
This is very interesting because "dar" is used in many Turkish words "darp" (beat), "derdest" (clamp down) also as a suffix -dar in many words meaning hold, enforce. Since there is noone knowledgeable in Turkish language they list these word as borrowings from Persian, while they are reborrowings.
Many English words, including "dare" "through", derives from "dar" and tar/dar is used as a suffix as in master.
It is possible to follow migrations through the use of the stem/suffix TarUsing linguistiscs with genetics data will help reveal a lot more on the migration of languages and culture.
The meaning of Tar: religious, governance, and physical forceThere are three levels of use and they all indicate authority.
As they are the oldest written records of humanity, one should look at Sumerian language to find the origins of a word or its original spelling. It does not mean the oldest version of the word but it sure is the oldest recorded version and it is possible to extrapolate back in time using this information.
Nam = fate, Namdar= fate decree, hence dar means decree. In physical world, Dar=split, Tar=cut.
Decree and physical force are in line with the Indo-European use but there is one very important domain where Tar is missing: religion. Atra-Hasis myth is known from 1800BC around the time Akkadians conquered Sumer lands. Ishtar is also Akkadian.
Tar'am-Agade was the daughter of the Akkadian king Naram-Sin, and she married the king of the Hurrian city of Urkesh. Here we find Tar root as well.
Genetics of Indo-European speakersLanguages and genes rarely correlate.
Genetics show that the speakers of Indo-European languages have Siberian ancestry, which is denoted as ANE, Ancient Northern Eurasians who are known to have survived well into the Bronze Age. The populations living in Europe have ancestry from Central Asia too as the genetics data show. These regions are historically associated with Turks and Mongols. Some people tried to connect Indo-European languages to haplogroup "R1a" but that approach failed as the Scythian and Sarmatian genetic records show, they were R1b and Q1a in addition to R1a. Hence through genetics, we clearly see Indo-Europeans together with other people from Siberia, Turks and Mongols.
Indo-European is basically a linguistic construct, hence we can call Indo-Europeanization as the linguistic process that creates a new language group from Turkish.
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Discover groundbreaking revelations on the roots of modern civilization in one short book. How did we arrive to where we are? How ancient civilizations a world apart, Sumer and Maya were connected. An overview that covers a wide range of topics from human migrations 50000 years ago to Gobeklitepe, the first temple in history, the first matriarchal society with written records, Elam, and to the Sun Cult of the Hattis. Their origins and influence on other ancient civilizations including their neighbors, distant relatives: Ancient Egypt, Ancient Greece, Hurrian, Scythian, Oguz, Kassite, Gutian, Hyksos and more. (Many of my articles on this website included)