By Mehmet Kurtkaya, Published on October 23, 2018, Last Update on August 22, 2019
Continued from PART I: Original Homeland of the Indo-Europeans
(Click on the image for the answer) PART III: Sun and sky worship, its linguistic implications, the Bull cult and the words for Ox, Cow and Taurus
PART IV: English, Greek, Latin and other Indo-European Languages derive from Turkish
PART V: Is it the Caucasus mountains or the Taurus / Zagros ? Indo-European Homeland Proven!
The words foot and Turkish "ayak" sound completely different, but can they be related? The answer : Words for foot and leg in world languages
Sun Language Puzzle, 9 pictures, 9 English words. Which Sumerian word from 4500 years ago connects them?
As ancient and modern genome research papers are published, one would expect the resolution of the big question that has been on European scholars' mind since the 1500s: the original homeland of Europeans. The reality turned out to be the opposite. The status-quo theory, Kurgan / Pontic-Caspian Indo-European homeland theory, sits on shakier ground than ever.
In fact, every single genetic study published in the last couple of years supported my theories and books while creating shock and disbelief among scholars of Indo-European linguistics and archaeology.
There are also conflicting ideas coming from genetics research teams at Harvard, Max Planck and Copenhagen. While only a few minor mistakes have been detected so far in the genetics side of the research work, the real problem remains in the identification of the language, and sometimes, the cultural affiliation of the ancient people analyzed in the studies.
At every instance where uniformity was expected by Western scholars, such as Yamnaya, Khvalynsk, Scythian, Saka and Cimmerian burials the opposite turned out to be true, different haplogroups were found. It was also found that Italy and Greece had colonizers from Turkey, Iran and the Caucasus migrating via the Mediterranean as early as 4000-5000 years ago.
By far, the biggest shock was the discovery of Ancient Northern Eurasians (ANE) whose ancestry is detected accross all continents. And East Asian presence in Bronze and Iron Age European, Central Asian sites where Western scholars did not expect any. Genetic remains of Botai and Neolithic West Siberian hunter gatherer genomes probably related to the Kelteminar (at least culturally) were found in Eastern Europe, Iran, and South Central Asia.
And when there was a special instance of a possibility of connecting languages to genes, such as in the case of research detailing the genomic history of Spain, the language most correlated to R1b subclades was Basque, a non-Indo-European language and the oldest of Europe. It also meant that Basque/Vasconic languages were spoken by at least some or maybe all of the Bell Beakers who had moved to Western Europe including Britain and France from Eastern Europe / Yamnaya. This meant that the time had come to put the most popular, almost official, Kurgan / Pontic Caspian theory in a kurgan.
David Anthony, staunch defender of Kurgan theory along with most other archaeologists, had to change his decades old position from Steppe homeland to some form of South of the Caucasus PIE, as archaeology and genetics showed the existence of Caucasian hunter gatherers (CHG) in the Eurasian Steppes, though the debate still remains as to the exact source and nature of the CHG found in the Pontic Caspian and Eastern Europe. Supporters of the kurgan theory are hanging on to dwindling hopes.
The icing on the very messy Indo-European cake came with this study: Ancient Genomes Reveal Yamnaya-Related Ancestry and a Potential Source of Indo-European Speakers in Iron Age Tianshan. While study authors claimed they were Indo-European Tocharian speakers, Eurogenes and commentators challenged the language and culture the researchers attached to these ancient individuals and suggested them to be XiongNu / Yuezhi / Wusun.
Without sound linguistics and archaeology tough times lie ahead for the geneticists. And with the correct linguistics and mythology, the exact opposite is true, and it will be possible to identify languages of the people at periods where no written records exists. In fact, genetics will even help sort out differences in Indo-European speaking populations with the correct language calls.
We are at the turning point of a linguistics and history enlightenment.
The word water in Indo-European linguistics and ongoing problemsAlmost one year after I wrote my original article "Water, Father, Mother", I went on a web search to see if others, linguists and amateurs found the same problems I had noticed in PIE linguistics. I will give a few examples of what I have found.
A lot of the proto-Indo-European (PIE) word reconstructions stand on shaky ground even in 2019, almost two centuries after linguistics became a field of study in Europe.
The word for water is very important in many dimensions. The source of life, the subject of creation myths since the Sumerians, directly related to reproduction and many more. Linguistically, we should expect it to have a special place especially in early societies, in paleolinguistics.
There are two suggested roots at the moment:
- "Ak'wa" or "*h₂ekʷeh₂" also formulated as "Wod'r/n"
The classification of different IE words under these two roots from a pure linguistic point of view seem to bring a set of problems.
For example, the question of sound change/progression. The current state of affairs in linguistics is seen in a post how did the French word "eau" evolve from Latin aqua where the poster remarks the puzzling case of Spanish speakers misspelling agua as *aua like awa and states "back in Norman Conquest days, the Norman French dialect had a [w] sound where Central (Parisian) French used a [g]. That is why we have English “William, war, warden,” etc. related to French Guillaume, guerre, guardien, etc." I had covered this in English words "guard" and "ward". In a reply, Horia Georgescu adds “aua” gave the “au” ending in Germanic languages,found in river names (Donau,Moldau,Hagenau,Thurgau,Warschau…).
(-Genetics: Some of the early Goth and Gepid noble women are known to have had Central Asian admixture and genetically cluster with Turks. Gothic aƕa is homophone with ağua, the Spanish word and its so called "misspellings".)
For example Wiktionary article for Romanian word for water "apa" has this PIE suggestion:
"From Latin aqua (compare Aromanian apã, Sardinian abba), from Proto-Italic *akʷā, ultimately from Proto-Indo-European *h₂ekʷeh₂."
While we have another PIE root *h₂ep- from which descend other "ap/ab" words for water.
However, under h₂ep-:
For Hittite ḫa-pa-aš, “river”, Lycian χba “to irrigate”, Celtic *abū (“river”), Oscan aapa(m) and others are said to descend from PIE root *h₂ep- from which Proto-Indo-Iranian *Hā́pš. Compare with Persian آب (âb), Baluchi آپ (áp), Bakhtiari او (aw), Central Kurdish ئاو (aw) and av, Avestan (ap), Sanskrit अप् (áp).
Here, we cannot find the oldest Indo-European language, closest to Vulgar Latin, Sardinian word for water "abba", or Romanian apa which are listed under Latin agua. And there is also Oscan aapa(m).
This is generally known as p vs. -kw, or in full ap vs. akwa.
Salvatore Dedola in his “Historic grammar of Sardinian Language" (partly found in From Sasartiglia), correctly suggests that "abba", the word for water in Sardinian does not derive from Latin "aqua", but that the two words were formed in parallel processes, by showing water and water-related words from Mesopotamian cuneiform records for Akkadian and Sumerian. He also mentions Akkadian agû, egû ‘wave, current, flood’. I should add that Sumerian language had a foundational influence on Akkadian. (See also Akkadian and Prototurkic by math professor H.M. Hubey and Comparison of Akkadian and Turkish by Azerbaijani Efsad Alili)
There are also discussions about the association of the word to "swift" and "horse" among Indo-European scholars. However, they all miss the most important connection of the word for water!
Can languages be traced to a single origin?
(Click to read the article and see full size image)
Origin and Spread of Languages on Eurasian Map based on Genetics Research and my books as of May 2019. The world's first known language Sumerian was favorably compared to many linguistic families in Eurasia and America. Comparing ancient Sumerian migration routes constructed from ancient genome studies to these languages will give the opportunity to trace back world languages to a common language spoken some 20,000 years ago continue reading.
Global etymology for Water ?In Global etymologies linguists John D. Bengtson and Merritt Ruhlen, connected the word for water to "-AQ’WA" in language families across five continents: Khoisan, Nilo-Saharan, Afro-Asiatic, Indo-European, Uralic, Japanese, Ainu, Caucasian, Burushaski, Sino-Tibetan, Indo-Pacific, Australian, Amerind.
In the Indo European section of the comparison list, we find:
"... Proto-Indo-European (Pokorny) *akw¯a- ‘water,’ (Puhvel) *egw-, (Bomhard) *ek’w-; Anatolian: Hittite eku-, Luwian aku-, Palaic ahu-ô ‘drink’; Italic: Latin aqua ‘water’; Germanic: Gothic ahwa ‘river’; Tocharian: Tocharian A yok- ‘drink.’..."
In a comments section of a blog post where this study was discussed, user Shglor Ufa suggests Turkish word "ak" but Piotr Gąsiorowski hastily refuses as chance coincidence.
I should add that "ak" (flow) in Turkish, is an all-encompassing word that works with all fluids whether rivers, bodily fluids such as blood, runny nose etc. It is also logical to assume that the Turkish word for flow "ak" is derived from "ağ" because ğ > g > k in Turkish is very well established by many historic examples, and fits linguistic progression of laryngeal/guttural sounds. The proof can be found in written Sumerian records I provide below.
Moreover Mongolian "uğu" means to drink and Sakha/Yakut Turkish "uu" means water. It is not hard to see that Altaic "uu" had a "ğ" that disappeared hence in Altai Turkish "uğu" was used for water.
WaterHave you ever noticed how close the words "water" and "father" sound ?
About 100 years ago, Czech scholar Bedrich Hrozny was about to decipher an ancient language written on cuneiform tablets in around 1000 BC, found in Bogazkoy, near Ankara, central Turkey. Using his Sumerian and Akkadian knowledge he was able to read one line as follows:
He immediately recognized Ninda as "bread" thanks to his previous Mesopotamian studies. However, another word not known from Mesopotamia stood out.
Yes, water! This was an amazing discovery. He also recognized German word for "eat", "essen" (Hittite "ezza") and translated the line as "eat bread and drink water". The amazing discovery that lead to the breakthrough was the word "watar" which had become German "wasser" too. English word "water" is even closer to the Hittite word, it is basically the same after 3000 years! Pretty impressive.
Hronzy then went onto translating the rest of the text, and other cuneiform tablets. He concluded that this ancient language was the first Indo-European language with written records: the Hittite language.
Since this discovery, scholars were able to connect Hittite word to similar other Indo-European words from English water to German wasser and eventually to a reconstructed Proto-Indo-European *wódr (or wodn).
Let's now look at the word "watar" through Sumerian Language, by using Sumerian - English dictionary at University of Pennsylvania and Sun Language Theory:
The Hittite word for water is transliterated as watar (wa-tar) or waatar (wa-a-tar). Some scholar use an underlined u to mark "w" to mark a small sound distinction.
The sound "wa" or specifically the sound "w" is not found in Turkish, and it is certainly a late addition in languages. Sumerian - English dictionary at University of Pennsylvania has the following:
Uğ = People (Note: the meanings lineage, kin, kind as in humankind must be added. If your browser cannot display the ğ character, it is a voiced g coming from the throat, a laryngeal sound)
a = water
Tar = It means "decree, confiscate, split, cut" in line with meanings in other languages. Sargon of Agade (Akkad), Persian king Darius, Alexander the Great and many other basic words use this very ancient stem known from Sumerian cuneiform records from 4500-5000 years ago. It is found as a root in Hatti god Taru, Hittite Tarhunz, Etruscan Tarchon, and as a high officer and kagan (king) title among the Turks in the Altai mountains and Mongolia. The drink of Greek gods, associated with immortality Nektar (nectar), Spanish Tartessos, too. Tar is a religious / mythological term, and from its later use we know that it gives the kings the power to rule over people. The word has many descendants in modern languages including English.
So, we have the following by using the additive property of Sumerian Turkish:
The ğ (voiced g) does not have any correspondant in Indo-European languages, hence I can only provide an approximation for how it sounds: ooatar. "oo" as in loop, cook etc. Try to say it quickly, and see how close it is to water. With ğ, it is even closer.
Laryngeal TheoryIn 1879, French linguist Ferdinand de Saussure theorized that Indo-European languages had a laryngeal sound which later disappeared. This is known as the Laryngeal theory, and that missing sound is represented with variations of h such as h1, h2, h3. This theory was proven true with the discovery of the Hittite language, and the lost sound is now represented with h breve (with an underline) in Hittite studies!
This "h" sound is very close to Sumerian and Turkish voiced g: "ğ". In early 2016, I had shown that Hurrian is misnamed Ugur. I have emailed many Western scholars, written in a paper discussion in Academia, my thesis that the sound must be corrected to ğ from h. I did not find any support anywhere, and sometimes I was met with quite offensive replies, including in Turkey, where academicians repeat whatever the West tells them to say. Except, a few days ago, I found out that a Hungarian-American computer scientist, and a researcher in ancient language studies, Peter Revesz, (author of Spatio-Temporal Data Mining of Major European River and Mountain Names Reveals their Near Eastern and African Origin, and speaker in the Conference Video in Budapest) had linked my article How I proved that the founders of Ancient Greece were Ugur Turks, known as Hurrians and a Turkish blogger, Gürkan Yeniçeri, had linked my Sun Language Theory book. Plus a few blog shares including one on Etruscan civilization by a Spanish commentator on an Italian blog page. That's almost all in about 3 years.
Let's go back to the word watar: uğ-a-tar= people/lineage + water + power to rule.
Why would the Hittites not use Sumerian word for water, "a", a most simple sound, a vowel, and complicate it with a prefix (uğ) and a suffix very critical for Indo-European languages, tar but also important in Afroasiatic languages and Turkish too? Why so pompous?
The answer lies in the Sumerian word "a" which has two more meanings in addition to water: "semen", and "progeny"!
FatherThe word "father" was critical in establishing the Indo-European language family: languages from Sanskrit to English used a common word. See How the Word ‘Father’ Unlocked the History of Language.
The word that is hypothetized as the proto-Indo European (PIE), that all others derive from, is Pitar. Etymologyonline and Wiktionary state that the word comes probably from the baby sound "ba".
I agree with this assesment as this is true for languages other than Indo-European, such as the old Turkish word for father Old Turkic apa, Etruscan apa, Hungarian "apa", ab, Akkadian "abu", Sumerian "abba", modern Turkish "baba", as in Ali Baba. The sound "apa/ab" for father works across language families, Indo-European, Uralic, Afroasiatic, Altaic. (Also see:12,000 years of Patriarchy, Gobeklitepe, Sumer and the Word for Father )
However, this explanation, that the word comes probably from the baby sound "ba", misses a very important point for Indo-European languages, the second part of the word which is "tar", used as a suffix. The use of "(a)Tar" to construct family words, establishes a dynasty. This is where the clue lies for the origin of Indo-European languages. TAR/TUR is also found in other important words: mother, sister, brother, daughter, but not in son (See Sun Language Theory Proven! for the reason why).
It is not only in familial relations that we find -tar/-tor suffix, but also in master (from magister), nectar, author as suffix and still many others as root, all related to power, such as thar, through, door, or as an indicator of a person performing an action as in Latin cantor (English singer: sing+er). This word is central to Indo-European languages and its common roots.
Etruscan especially, is known to be closest to Indo-European languages through Latin and was considered by Kretschmer as the pre-Greek language in Ancient Greek. See Etruscan civilization founded by migrants from Turkey for more. Hence,we can suggest that Indo-European "Patar" is derived from "Apa+Tar" and with a known initial vowel drop in ancient Indo-European languages:
Apatar > Patar. Sankskrit Pitar, Latin Pater, Greek Pater, English Father, Old Norse Fathir, German Vater are all known derivatives of Patar. The initial consonant "P" becomes "V" or "F" in different European languages
UTUR, ATUR, ATAR and derived terms ADUR, ATAR
I have discussed in great detail the formation and meaning of these sounds used as suffix, prefix and stem in my books.
These are formed by Ut/At + Ur/Ar. Both are foundational words in Sumerian Ut/Ud sun, Turkish "At" for "fire". "Ur" also the main stem for Ur, Uruk for Sumerian meaning among others man/base/root/roof/fish, in Turkish population growth, ur, social structure "urug", major branch of Turkish people name Ugur Turks, Ugric etc. "Ur" is also related to fish in Sumerian and especially important as a root for water in Basque.
In Latin Aqua article by Octavià Alexandre we see Celtiberian "tar akuai could be translated as 'across the river'." Reverse order is close to the word formation of water!
Water and hydro are etymological twins, but so are the words Troy - Turuk and water!
The word for water in SumerianIn addition to "a" there are other words that are used for water or water related words such as:
The word "ağ" (aj) as below:
a'u [WATER] wr. a-u2; a-u3; a-u5; u3; u5 "high water"
aguba [VESSEL] wr. duga-gub2-ba "a cultic vessel for water" Akk. agubbû
ba [VESSEL] (1x: Old Babylonian) wr. dugba "type of vessel")
With these three words, we can deduct "agu" as of cultic significance per additive property of Sumerian completely in line with Ağa (father/leader), and a Ağ (to command), agar=lead, ak=do (ğ>k known uğ>uk), agazi=leader etc. Moreover Sumerian word for water/high water "a'u" suggests a silent stop between a and u which could be explained with the loss of "ğ" as in "ağu". More as follows:
aği = wave, flood
ağar = rainshower
agar = vessel
aga = vessel
ah = dry spittle, mucus(ğ>h)
uhpu = standing water (ğ>h)
Sumerian word for sea, ocean water "ab".
Hence we have three words "a", "ağ" and "ab" as water and as roots for water related words.
At this point, I should mention a seminal paper by famed Finnish Assyriogist Simo Parpola on Sumerian Uralic word comparison results presented in 2007, to the World Assyriology Congress in Moscow. Parpola's article is written in a very simple language, and anyone can read it. The article is hosted on the most comprehensive Turkish history website (apart from SumerianTurks) and was established by Russian scholars, Anatole Klyosov and Norm Kisamov.
Parpola makes a very important observation: how in Finnish and Sumerian, a missing labiovelar was replaced by the g/k and b sounds in Sumerian and v sounds across the Uralic languages and this shows a genetic relationship between Sumerian and Uralic languages including Finnish. Hence, he establishes the equivalence of g/k or b and v or p.
The best known case of alternation of G and B is found in the famed Sumerian myth of Gilgamesh, also known as Bilgamesh.
Sumerian word for sea, ocean "ab" or "a-ab-ba" is equivalent to Finnic "aava", "aappa", Parpola shows. Hungarian "öböl" means bay, harbour (tip by Peter Revesz).
And this would be the source of the -kw and -p alternation in Indo-European word for water.
The same alternation also holds for the Sumerian/Turkish word for father: Etruscan/Old Turkish "Apa" would be equivalent to Turkish "Ağa" which means feudal lord, landlord, father in Turkish. Sumerian words for father "abba" and "aya" (ağa in Turkish and ğ >y is well established. "j" in Finnish corresponds to "y" in Turkish) also support this alternation.
(Side note: Parpola also mentions the Sumerian word Ugu (=Ug+u), meaning top of the head has its counterpart in Hungarian "Agy", meaning brain and Uralic word *ajkwo "brain, top of the head".)
Water - Father RelationshipParpola also mentions water-father homophony in Finnish, a Uralic language, in addition to Sumerian: a, aj "water" and aj, aja "father" in Sumerian, and jää, jäj and äj, äijä in Uralic.
Modern Turkish uses "su" as water, but has ancient word "ab" for water and "baba" for father. Hence, water-father relationship holds in Turkish too. I had previously explained the relationship between "su" and "ab" and won't get into details here.
Water-father holds in Sumerian as in "Ağ (water)- Ağa (father)", "Ab (water) - Abba (father)" and "a" (means both water and semen). The evidence is firm and points at the patriarchal nature of the Sumerian society and the fertile/reproductive nature of "water" in mythical sense.
The same holds true for Indo-European which is known to be patriarchal not only with ap (apatar/pitar/father) and ağ (Agamemnon, hegemon,Augustus/Augur/augeo and many others) and p - kw correspondance observed in Romanian, Oscan-Umbrian and Latin and Germanic languages.
Water-Father relationship holds accross languages, Sumerian (the first known language of humanity), Turkish (misclassified as Altaic only), Finnish (Uralic/Ugric), and Indo-European. This is another major evidence for the Sun Language Theory in addition to the evidence I presented in my books and articles.
And the word for father "Ağa" is almost the same as "Uğa", which I used as the first part of the word for Hittite water. "Uğ+a" literally means People/Lineage/Kinship + Water/Semen/Progeny. "Tar" is a suffix as explained above. It is also possible that some of the people used the word Ağ+u instead of Uğ+a, in that case it would be ağu+atar (see below for more) and the difference in vowels can be used to differentiate between ancient groups of people.
There is even more. "Uga" (=Ug+a) means milk in Sumerian!
Hence bodily fluids, "waters" that are essential in procreation and the progenitors can be constructed using most basic Sumerian Turkish words: "Uğ" and "a" or "Ağ" and "u". Sanskrit: अप् (ap),Farsi: آب (âb), Pashto: اوبه (obe) all mean water. Oscan aapa(m) water. Compare that to pa- the root for father/pitar, we observe that water-father homophony holds for Indo-European ap as well. Sardinian "babbu" father and "abba" water.
"Uğ" accross languages: Basque-Caucasian connection: Georgian "Gw", Basque "Gu" and English "We" are suggested as cognates, so are Sumerian "Uğ" and Turkish "Uğ/Oğ" meaning people. In fact Georgian, Basque and English words point out to the existence of a common ancestor "Uğ"/"Uği".
Basque: uharre / ugarre 'torrent'; uhaitz / ugaitz 'torrential river', Sumerian ağar rainshower
Basque: Etymological dictionary of Basque by Michel Morvan, Archaeogenetics and the birth of human language, Basque
In Wiktionary article for the English word "ea" We find the Sumerian word for water "a" in Icelandic á (“stream, river”), Dutch aa (“water, stream”) among others.
- Greek and Indo-European Etymology in Action: Proto-Indo-European *ag?- by Raimo Anttila looks at this root in Indo-European water related words.
In a forum post, User Frank06 shows kʷ - p sound equivalence in Romanian too: apa < aqua (water), iapa < equa (horse), patru < quattuor (four), paresimi < quadragesima (forty).
(Side note for Sumerian/Akkadian ab/ba: Uralic-Ugric Finnish "vesi" and Hungarian "viz" for water are also related to Sumerian "ba" with the addition of "us". Also related is "buz" which means "ice" in Turkish.)
The word for water in Indo-European languages is now confirmed to be of Sumerian origin on multiple levels1- The existence of "a", "ağ", and "ab" in Sumerian for water. All three sounds are found in Indo-European languages and mean water.
2- The case of the correspondance of -kw and -p in Indo-European languages such as Oscan, Umbrian, Romanian and others can be explained by the existence of the words for water "ağ" and "ab" in Sumerian. Parpola shows the existence of missing labieovelar -kw throughout the whole Sumerian language and the equivalence of "g" and "b/v/f" which applies to Uralic as well !
3- Water - father sound similar in Indo-European languages. This also goes back to Sumerian where all three words for water are also used for the words father and semen. This also fits with the patriarchal societies and the place of water in Sumerian creation myths.
4- The word for father is almost the same across Indo-European languages. On the other hand, there are multiple forms of the word for water in Indo-European languages. This is a very important information that can be used to identify different groups of Indo-European speaking people with the help of genetics information. This will make genetics research the tool to identify languages/groups even when there are no written records for the ancient group that is analyzed.
For more on the duality of "p" and "q" see Words for foot and leg in world languages. Compare p-Celtic and q-Celtic.
Latin words for Horse "equus" and Water "aqua"In Latin aqua 'water' Octavià Alexandre suggests a sound shift -kʷ- > -kk- which he calls Kretschmer's Law. It one uses "ğğ" instead of -kʷ this would work.Doubling of the consonants is a classic feature of Afroastic words that have migrated from Sumerian to Akkadian. This transforms consonant endings to vowel endings. Kur > kurru, Şar > Şarru, Huur > Huurri etc.
Doubling of the consonants found also in Hurrian like in eššǝ (horse). Same happened with its equivalent uğ > uğğa. The original for eššǝ horse was most probably "eş". I have also shown another classic Afroasiatic transformation T > ş as in Dardan > Shardana Sea peoples from Ugaritic are equivalent hence Turkish word for horse "at" > "aş/eş". (š=ş)
In modern Turkish the word for donkey is eşek. In old Turkish, the word for "donkey" was "eşgek" or eşyek. This g/y alternance clearly points out to an earlier laryngeal ğ. continue reading the article: Indo-European words for horse
MotherSumerian "Ama", Turkish "Ana" (from Ama), Basque "Amak" mean mother. The word "mother" derives from Sumerian "Ama" similar to the derivation of the word "father":
Ama + tar = Amatar
Reconstructed Proto-Indo European is Matar hence formed through a vowel drop which is already known to occur as seen above with the word father : Amatar > Matar.
In some Native American languages like Cherokee, we see the Sumerian word for mother "ama" used for water. This may hint at their keeping their matriarchal language values from Paleolithic times. Commanche word for water is paa, related to Sumerian father.
"Og" meant mother in ancient Turkish, compare to uğa in water, uğu Turkish word for water.
DaughterThe kinship term closest to the sound "uğatar" (water) is "daughter". With the addition of a "d", the ancient word for water, "uğatar" becomes "duğatar". Moreover, with a change of vowel order it becomes "dağutar" hence "daughter". What is the logic behind adding a "d" sound?
Ug+u=Ugu, "Ugu" means "giving birth" in Sumerian. "Uga" as seen above, the basis of the word for "water", means "milk" in Sumerian and it is most closely related to "Ugu", birth.
In modern Turkish, "Doğ" means "to be born", "Doğu" means "East", where the sun is born. "Doğ+um"="Doğum" means "birth".
As seen also with the word daughter, a "d" sound is added to Sumerian "uğu" / "uğa" to form modern Turkish "Doğ". Where does that "d" sound come from?
The answer lies in Sun Language Theory: Another Sumerian word for "giving birth", "bear child" is "utud". It is formed through addition of "ut" and "ud": ut+ud = utud.
Both "ut" and "ud" mean "sun" in Sumerian Turkish. It would literally mean sun+sun, a word duplication meaning: many sun, most sun.
The Sumerian word "dumu" (du+mu) which means "child, son, daughter", has the same "du" root. And the "mu" part is closely related to "ama" mother.
The Sumerian word for "sun" is the basis of "d" in Duğu": Ud+uğu= Uduğu and with the initial vowel drop as seen in "amatar", "apatar" etc., we obtain "Doğu" the modern Turkish word for East and birth "doğum" and the English word "Daughter" (=Doğ+Tar).
See the main article etymology of daughter, milker, child, tribe, family, clan
English word "Born", French "Ne"At first sight they seem to be completely different because they sound very different. However, if use mythology-language relationship we see that they actually share a root!
English word "born" or the German equivalent "Beran" for birth also derive from Turkish, through another Turkish word root.
The reconstructed PIE word "ber" for "born", means "give" in Turkish. Hence you can easily reconstruct born and baren, through ber+An = give+Sky hence Sky-given. Romance language words for "born", for example "Nee" in French, derive from the Sumerian Turkish sky word, An:
An > Ne
Primeval WaterWater is essential not only for human life, but also central to many myths including creation myths starting with Sumer. Inevitably, water is linked with both spiritual and physical fertility. Primordial waters in myths around the world allude to the act of birth with maternal waters. Water and creation is intrinsically related. Would that show in language?
Sumerians believed that the world was based on primeval water, called "abzu", basis for the English word "abyss". Azu means doctor but specifically "water healer" as known from Sumerian god Ninazu (Nin-Azu). In Sumerian words "Uga" (Ug+a) which means milk, "Uğa" which forms the basis of the word Hittite "uğatar" / "watar", Sumerian "a" which is used for water, sperm and progeny, we see the evidence of ancient beliefs in language.
The word Ugatar (Water) shows common origin for Romance and Germanic languagesIf you look at the etymology of the words for English word "water" and French word "eau" one sees different Proto-Indo-European reconstructions. Etymologyonline mentions two roots for the word water: *ap- and *wed-.
Wiktionary has the following etymology word the French word for water
From Middle French eau, eaue, from Old French ewe, euwe, egua (“water”), from Latin aqua (“water”), from Proto-Italic *ak?a, from Proto-Indo-European *h²ek?eh² (“water, flowing water”). Cognate with Old English ea (“flowing water, stream, river”). *ahwo (“waters, river”).
Divergent Germanic and Romance language reconstructions can be easily connected with the use of "uğa" and "uğatar".
Let us also note that "Watar" is not the only rendering of the Hittite word for "water": "wa-a-tar", "wadar", "wadarra" are also used.
"wa-a" would be uğaa!
There is only one consonant in the world that would satisfy all the above three equations: That would be Turkish guttural sound "ğ"!
Moreover Ancient Greek word for water οὕδωρ (hoúdōr) shows the "h" sound which later dropped out to form modern ύδωρ. Same with Hatria/Atria Etruscan city in the Adriatic, "h" dropped out in time. https://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/%E0%A4%89%E0%A4%A6%E0%A5%8D%E0%A4%B0#Sanskrit sanskrit udra is cognate with Ancient Greek ὕδρος (húdros), Polish wydra, Old English otor (whence English otter). Note the initial sound h, w or its disappearance. This would reaffirm the existence of ğ, as ğ is known to become h, as in Uğur > Huur (Huurri / Hurrian) and known to satisfy all of the above.
Illyrian word for water "adur" along with Etruscan city Atria is thought to be the source of the word for Adriatic sea. Linguists suggests it derives from either while in reality both Etruscan Atria and Illyrian Adur derive from the same root. In fact "uğatar" or "uğatur" becomes H/Atria with "uğ" as the suffix instead of a prefix. Atur+uğ/ağ > Atria. Atur > Adur, water in Illyrian attested in Western Balkans along the Adriatic sea. Uğatar with the drop of "uğ" becomes adur. And Albanian "uje" which descends from Illyrian can be connected to Uğa > Uje like Turkish "Ağa" becoming "Aija" in Uralic. Umbrian word for water utur.
Uğa+atar > Uğaa+tar, atar being the original form of the stem "tar", and tarh (across/trans) PIE root derived from Tarhun is Tar+uğ becoming Tarh.
Hence, we can easily and correctly reconstruct the Proto-Indo-European word "ağua". And the only difference this word has with the Hittite "uğa" (or "uğaa) written as "wa" in Hittite and English is the order of the vowels: "ağu" instead of "uğa".
The word Nektar has a similar derivation as WaterNectar is the drink of Greek and Roman gods largely associated with immortality. The established etymology of this word supports the correct etymology for the word "water", as I have shown above. An+uğ+tar= Anuktar > Nektar.
See the main article Nektar
Latin Rege, French Roi, Minoan Linear A ro-ja, Sumerian Uruk, Turkish Urug, Hungarian UgorThe royal title read as "ro-ja" in Linear Minoan A, fits both in sound and meaning Sumerian Turkish "ur+uğa" (Man+Water/Lineage)!
Uruğa > Ruğa= Ro-Ja which is the Minoan Linear A royal title. And this word in Turkish sounds exactly like French "Roi" (king).
Latin "Rege" derives from uruğa > ruğa > rege as well ! This also explains the loss of "g" from Latin "Rege" to French "Roi", which can happen only with a "ğ", just like in ağua > Latin "aqua" and French "eau" as seen above.
What does Turkish word "Urug" mean?
The ancient Turkish word URUG known from Orhun scripts in East Asia, means the base/grouping of the collection of families and is part of the hierarchical Turkish society organization: Urug = Ur+Ug, base/collection of families plus people/lineage Ug. Also note Ur(um) and Uruk/Urug were very important Sumerian cities. See: Manifestation of Mythology, Religion, State and Empire Founding in Languages From Sumerian and modern Turkish Ug/Ag/Aug/Og, to Etruscan Augur, Latin Augeo, and the First Roman Emperor Augustus
The word "Uruğ" is formed by the same syllables as in "Uğur" (=Huur > Hurrian), "Ur" and "Uğ", the basis for Hungarian Ugor and Ugric languages as well. It is formed through sound order change, called a metathesis. Both of these words are still used in Turkish.
The origins of the inflection formed by "um" or "m", as in Latin "regem", is found in Southeastern Turkey Turukku(m) in around 2300-1800 BC and probably earlier, the ubiquitous ending in people/city names in the region the Etruscans and the Minoans migrated from. See more on the "um" suffix in Etymology of "Rome" (Roma, Italy).
The etymology of the word "Roma" follows the exact same path as Latin "Rege": Urum+a > Ruma and Uruğ+a > Ruğa > Rege.
The formation of the English word King follows another path but is based on same basic mythology and language, Turkish.
From Religious use to Mundane Kinship termsAs can be seen in Dyeus Pitar, Zeus Pitar, the word father was used as an attribute of god, hence the word has ancient religious roots. In time, it became the kinship term father.
English King, Turkish Kagan, Kin and KanEnglish word "kin" derives from Turkish word "kan" meaning blood. In Turkish, "kin" means hate, conceptually related to "kan". Old Turkish word "kang" means father.
Kagan / Khan / Han the word for highest ruler is also related. English / German words "King" and "Konig" probably derive from these stems: Kan+Ug (blood plus people/lineage).
More over "kan" is formed through Uğ+An=Kinship+Sky as the Sumerian word AN means sky. Uğan > Gan > Kan
"Gan" also means bear child in Sumerian, perfectly in line with "Ugan" above.
With the initial vowel drop, Ugan becomes Gan and later Kan. There is even more, Gan means mountain and is used in the Turkish word Kurgan the name of the grave in which Indo-Europeans were also buried in addition to Turks.
The other potential derivation for the English word King is Kun+ağ > Kunag > Konig / King. This uses the word for day Kun, and part of Kunesh, Sun in Turkish.
Origins of the English word Red, its Indo-European counterparts and Sumerian word for Copper reveals deep Sumerian connection and hints at the Urheimat of Indo-European languages. The proto Indo_European word for red, -reudh can only be explained through Sumerian urud+uğ = copper + kin means kind of copper, kin of copper, per Sun Language Theory. Hence the -h that is added at the end is actually Turkish ğ and not h.
"Of all languages derived from Turkish, English may well be the closest to Turkish." From Sun Language Theory Proven: The Birth of Languages and Civilizations.
Common ancestor of Indo-European, Basque, and Japanese: Ugur Turkish / SumerianThe common ancestor of Basque, Japanese, Indo-European and Sumerian is Ugur Turkish Equivalence of the words for water, living matter, population growth, social rule proven using Sun Language Theory.
The concept of the original connection between water and society in Japanese Wa (和), Basque (Ur, Ura), Sumerian (Ur, Uruk), Indo-European languages (water, agua), Turkish (Uğ) prove beyond any doubt that these language are genetically related.
Migrations to British Isles and EuropeAbout 4500 years ago, Britain's Stonehenge era population was replaced by migrating Bell Beaker people whose roots were in Central Asian steppes (ancestral home of the Turks)!
Irish people descendants of Middle East Farmers Celtic DNA shows
Latest genetics information on migration waves of the last 10,000 years, from Turkey (Anatolia) to Greece, Italy, Spain, Central Europe and Ireland can be found in my other articles and books.
The use of "Tar" in Latin, Greek and Sanskrit LanguagesThe use of "Tar" in Germanic languages has a counterpart in both Latin and Sanskrit:
Latin "Nostra" derives from Greek "Nos": "Nos+Tar" becomes "Nostar" and then "Nostra", meaning "we". Latin "Voster" as "vos+tar" becoming "voster", meaning "your", "you".
Sanskrit god "Indar", "In+dar/tar" (written in cuneiform as In-da-ra) is In+Dara > Indra with a metathesis, sound order change. Indra is the equivalent of Hittite Tarhunz and Greek Zeus!
"Dar" derives from "Tar" as T is known to become D, as in Sumerian UT became UD both meaning "sun".
The above shows a unified and correct Proto-Indo-European construction as opposed to those currently established seen above, 3 different roots for one basic word as water! In fact, mythologies are so connected that it would have been inconceivable to have 3 different words for water. They all go back to Sumerian Turkish Uğ plus a. In my books and articles, I had already shown that many reconstructed proto-Indo-European words are Turkish.
Connection between the words Water and WineAnother connection that can be seen through language-mythology (Sun Language) relationship is water-wine. The oldest ancient wine remains are from Georgia (South Caucasus) in 6000 BC and Iran 5000 BC.
The word for wine is constructed with the same root as water, uğa / wa plus "na" instead of "tar": wa+na=wana
The clearest example of this relationship can be found in Mycenaean Greek word for wine "wo-no".
Moreover, Greek word for wine, οἶνος (oînos), and Ancient Greek woînos, show how this word is based on uğan+os / uğanos, since ğ disappears as it does in other languages and, even in Turkish. Hence uğanos / woinos > uanos > oinos.
The ending -na is based on An, Sumerian Sky god. It is a metathesis, change of order of characters (sylabbles): an > na.
This also adds additional evidence for the route of the migration of the Siberian people found within Mycenaean Greeks: from Turkey instead of the Balkans. This question was left unanswered in the genetic study published in 2017. See genetics and more at Sumerian Influence on Ancient Greece: Minoan, Mycenaean and Classical Greece.
"Na" is an Etruscan ending as in Tarchna, Bologna in Italy and Adana, Smyrna in Turkey. Etruscan / Pelasgian roots already observed in Greek can be traced back to Southeastern Turkey and Iran. Mycenaeans migrated from the same region: Etruscan civilization founded by migrants from Turkey. See how the words for wine in different languages, including Afroasiatic and Caucasian, was also used by Ivanov and Gamkrelidze for suggesting the Original Homeland of the Indo-Europeans.
Laryngeal Theory must be correctedAs seen above, "ğ" is the consonant that must be used in Proto-Indo-European reconstructions and hence the theory must be corrected.
Most probable Original Homeland of the Indo-Europeans: Eastern Turkey- Northwestern IranLinguistic data very strongly points at Southeastern Turkey and Northwestern Iran as the original homeland of the Indo-Europeans. It slowly expanded towards other parts of Turkey and Iran, followed by a rapid migration towards Europe and South Asia.
Proven: Indo-European Languages derive from TurkishI have shown the following:
1- The words, including suffix and prefix, used to construct the words water, father, mother derive from Sumerian Turkish.
2- Uğ (voiced g, a special Turkish sound) instead of h breve in Hittite and instead of h in many other instances of ancient Indo-European words. Must be analyzed on a case by case basis. Similarly, Hurrian is Uğur.
3- The correspondance of p and -kw and aq'wa can be establisted via Turkish laryngeal ağ.
4- Moreover the words are formed throgh addition (agglutination) a feature of the Turkish language.
5- TAR is a very important suffix used by Turks from the Altai, Siberia to Italy and beyond such as TARtessian in Spain. It is used in kinship terms: PIE patar, matar, etc.
6- Water-Father word relationship is established via both ancient and modern languages and across language groups! And reconfirmed via mythological beliefs.
7- Many PIE words lead to existing ancient Sumerian Turkish words
8- In time, religious meaning became mundane kinship term.
Sun Language TheoryIn the 1930s, Ataturk was particularly interested in the discovery of the Hittite civilization. He founded Hittite studies department in Ankara, and named the major national mining company and bank "Eti" in their name, so the people would learn the name of the Hittite civilization. He also said Hittites may have been Turks. He had already suggested that the founders of the first major civilization in the world, Sumerians were ancient Turks and lived for 2000 years in Turkey's southern neighbor, Iraq. Assyriology scholars and linguists asserted that Hittite language was an Indo-European language and to this day there is near-unanimous agreement among scholars around the world that Hittite is an Indo-European language.
After 5 years of research, I have proven Ataturk's Sun Language Theory and showed that Indo-European languages and many other world languages derive from Turkish, and as such, Turkish is either the first human language or one that directly descended from it. Hence Hittite was also eventually derived from Turkish, though the much older Sumerian, the oldest known human language, is obviously closer to the first human language.
After Ataturk's death in 1938, Western propaganda arms told people in Turkey: "Nothing to see here, go find your written history records in Asia." And everyone in Turkey obeyed because, maybe except a few people out of tens of millions, there was no real Ataturkist in Turkey back then, just like today.
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Discover groundbreaking revelations on the roots of modern civilization in one short book. How did we arrive to where we are? How ancient civilizations a world apart, Sumer and Maya were connected. An overview that covers a wide range of topics from human migrations 50000 years ago to Gobeklitepe, the first temple in history, the first matriarchal society with written records, Elam, and to the Sun Cult of the Hattis. Their origins and influence on other ancient civilizations including their neighbors, distant relatives: Ancient Egypt, Ancient Greece, Hurrian, Scythian, Oguz, Kassite, Gutian, Hyksos and more. (Many of my articles on this website included)